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Chinese Filipino , Jollibee , Philippines 702 Words | 2 Pages. by the events that affect the lives of the response, people or the century interpretations of robinson crusoe a collection of critical, writer himself. Book Worksheets? For instance, if we are going to an essay trace the evolution of Philippine . Book Response Worksheets? Literature, we will be able to conjure up the ghost of the vanished centuries long before the coming of the Spaniards. During this period, literary production attained slow growth. We can generally infer that oral lore is the starting point of our literary heritage. Twentieth Century Interpretations Of Critical Essays? Though, Alibata – the old Filipino alphabet is already known during this era, the production. Jose Rizal , Katipunan , Literature 1576 Words | 5 Pages. Almost Famous: Essay On Entertainment Criticism. 04 October 2000 Almost Famous : Essay on Entertainment Criticism A rolling stone gathers no moss. Worksheets? If Cameron Crowe is to be . believed, a 15-year-old Rolling Stone writer will gather all kinds of of an, things.

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Calamba City , Jose Rizal , Laguna 1540 Words | 6 Pages. the use of language the book response, writers use to express their views on war. ?In this essay I am going to compare two extracts of writing, about World War 1. I am going to look at the use of language the . writers use to express their views on century a collection of critical essays, war. For the response, first extract I’ve chosen a very famous piece ‘A Soldiers declaration’ by twentieth century a collection essays, Siegfried Sassoon written in July 1917, I am comparing this against a letter written home by a junior officer from Flanders in 1916. Extract 1, A Soldiers Declaration is book response a very formal piece of writing, the writer starts of by informing the readers. Army , Formal system , Military 868 Words | 3 Pages. Priya Vanparia, Radhika Barve Meghna Pinnaka Dutton: 4th Period DBQ Frame List DBQ SA Frame List ? Introduction The Scramble . of Africa lasted throughout the years of 1876-1914 in Europe.

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It was such a memorable day. I was so nervous that my first piece of writing seemed less than mediocre as I reflected on what I had written that day. Century Of Robinson Crusoe? While being happy that my name was randomly chosen to be added to the class, I was very scared of this class. Book Worksheets? The last time I wrote an essay was two years ago, and before this class I had forgotten. Better , Essay , Grammar 1361 Words | 4 Pages. damaged the Forum and Curia.

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Web. 4 Jan. 2013. . The Early Life of Julius Caesar | Suite101. On The Story? Suite101. N.p. Alexandria , Ancient Rome , Augustus 1707 Words | 5 Pages. Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the author’s outlook and personality. Book Response? - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about someone or something.

YOU are at and now essay, the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. ? Essay 1 Mike Lupica: A Sports Writer It always comes down to the final seconds, just as it does in this thrilling . game winning shot. Book? The scoreboard only shows one second left in the game, it has been a hard fought game with both teams conversely matching each ones effort. The New Canaan Rebels are at the free-throw line with one shot left, the for writing an essay, shot that will guarantee the win to put away the team that had blown them out in the beginning of the season. Response Worksheets? The shot was made with no. Basketball , Connecticut , High school 806 Words | 3 Pages. 10. Carlo J. Caparas is a comic strip creator, writer , director and producer who became sensational known for structure on advertising, his created local superheroes and . Book Response Worksheets? comic book characters that are still popular to Filipinos until now. Communication And Now? Some of response, his creations turned Filipino icons such as “Panday” (a Blacksmith hero) and many others. As a producer and director, Carlo J. Caparas produced box-office movies based on comics and true-to-life stories and of marijuana essay introduction crimes. In 2009 he received National Artist Award granted by the President.

Ferdinand Marcos , Filipino language , Lualhati Bautista 1717 Words | 5 Pages. Filipino Literature: Course Description. Philippines) focuses on the different literary works of book, various Filipino writers throughout the twentieth interpretations of robinson a collection, Philippine islands. These works . helped shaped Filipino culture, thus, it is important that as Filipinos , we learn to appreciate our own literature and our culture in order to have a better understanding of our people and nation, in general. COURSE GOALS The course ultimately aims to enable you to appreciate the breadth and depth of Filipino literature. It also aims to deepen your understanding of book response worksheets, the. DVD region code , Literature 578 Words | 3 Pages. edu/clrc/files/wl/downloads/WritingaCompareContrastEssay.pdf http://www.humber.ca/liberalarts/sites/default/files/COMPARE%20AND%20CONTRAST%20ESSAY.pdf . Before beginning with the compare and contrast essay topics, let us spend some time on how to write and essay of this type and what it entails. Help College? Writing can be of book worksheets, many types - academic writing, journalistic writing, letter writing, essay writing, creative writing, and fiction writing. Twentieth Interpretations Of Robinson? All these types require different writing skills, and the writing tips also differ for each of them.

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component essay The Tragedy of the Commons. Science #13, December 1968: Vol. 162 no. 3859 pp. 1243-1248. This has been translated into Polish here: The Tragedy of the Commons, Garrett Hardin, Science, 162(1968):1243-1248. At the end of a thoughtful article on the future of response, nuclear war, J.B.

Wiesner and H.F. York concluded that: Both sides in the arms race are#133;confronted by the dilemma of steadily increasing military power and steadily decreasing national security. College. It is our considered professional judgment that this dilemma has no technical solution. If the great powers continue to look for solutions in response, the area of science and technology only, the result will be to worsen the situation.'' [1] I would like to focus your attention not on the subject of the article (national security in structure for writing, a nuclear world) but on the kind of conclusion they reached, namely that there is no technical solution to the problem. An implicit and almost universal assumption of discussions published in professional and semipopular scientific journals is that the problem under discussion has a technical solution. A technical solution may be defined as one that requires a change only in book response worksheets, the techniques of the natural sciences, demanding little or nothing in the way of change in human values or ideas of morality.

In our day (though not in earlier times) technical solutions are always welcome. Because of essay test questions, previous failures in prophecy, it takes courage to assert that a desired technical solution is not possible. Wiesner and York exhibited this courage; publishing in a science journal, they insisted that the solution to the problem was not to be found in book worksheets, the natural sciences. They cautiously qualified their statement with the phrase, It is our considered professional judgment. Story Of An Hour. Whether they were right or not is not the concern of the present article. Rather, the concern here is with the important concept of response worksheets, a class of human problems which can be called no technical solution problems, and more specifically, with the identification and discussion of one of these. It is easy to show that the class is not a null class. Recall the game of tick-tack-toe. Consider the problem, How can I win the game of analysis story hour, tick-tack-toe? It is well known that I cannot, if I assume (in keeping with the conventions of book worksheets, game theory) that my opponent understands the game perfectly. Put another way, there is no technical solution to communication then and now, the problem.

I can win only by giving a radical meaning to the word win. I can hit my opponent over the head; or I can falsify the records. Every way in worksheets, which I win involves, in some sense, an structure abandonment of the game, as we intuitively understand it. (I can also, of course, openly abandon the game -- refuse to play it. This is what most adults do.) The class of no technical solution problems has members. Worksheets. My thesis is that the population problem, as conventionally conceived, is a member of this class. How it is conventionally conceived needs some comment. It is essays story, fair to book response, say that most people who anguish over the population problem are trying to find a way to avoid the questions, evils of response, overpopulation without relinquishing any of the privileges they now enjoy. College Essays. They think that farming the seas or developing new strains of book response worksheets, wheat will solve the problem -- technologically. Communication And Now Essay. I try to show here that the solution they seek cannot be found. Response Worksheets. The population problem cannot be solved in a technical way, any more than can the problem of winning the game of tick-tack-toe.

What Shall We Maximize? Population, as Malthus said, naturally tends to grow geometrically, or, as we would now say, exponentially. In a finite world this means that the per-capita share of the legalization essay introduction, world's goods must decrease. Is ours a finite world? A fair defense can be put forward for the view that the world is infinite or that we do not know that it is not. But, in terms of the practical problems that we must face in the next few generations with the foreseeable technology, it is clear that we will greatly increase human misery if we do not, during the immediate future, assume that the world available to the terrestrial human population is book, finite. Structure An Essay. Space is response worksheets, no escape. [2] A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero. (The case of on the hour, perpetual wide fluctuations above and response, below zero is a trivial variant that need not be discussed.) When this condition is met, what will be the situation of mankind? Specifically, can Bentham's goal of the greatest good for the greatest number be realized? No -- for two reasons, each sufficient by itself. The first is a theoretical one.

It is of marijuana essay introduction, not mathematically possible to book worksheets, maximize for two (or more) variables at the same time. This was clearly stated by von Neumann and Morgenstern, [3] but the principle is implicit in the theory of partial differential equations, dating back at least to D'Alembert (1717-1783). The second reason springs directly from biological facts. To live, any organism must have a source of energy (for example, food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenance and work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600 kilocalories a day (maintenance calories). Anything that he does over and above merely staying alive will be defined as work, and structure for writing, is supported by work calories which he takes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call work in common speech; they are also required for all forms of enjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to book worksheets, playing music and writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it is obvious what we must do: We must make the work calories per person approach as close to zero as possible.

No gourmet meals, no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art#133;I think that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, that maximizing population does not maximize goods. Of Marijuana Essay. Bentham's goal is impossible. In reaching this conclusion I have made the usual assumption that it is the book, acquisition of energy that is the problem. The appearance of atomic energy has led some to question this assumption. However, given an analysis on the of an hour infinite source of energy, population growth still produces an book inescapable problem. The problem of the acquisition of energy is replaced by the problem of for writing an essay on advertising, its dissipation, as J. H. Fremlin has so wittily shown. [4] The arithmetic signs in the analysis are, as it were, reversed; but Bentham's goal is unobtainable. The optimum population is, then, less than the worksheets, maximum. The difficulty of analysis essays on the story, defining the optimum is enormous; so far as I know, no one has seriously tackled this problem.

Reaching an worksheets acceptable and stable solution will surely require more than one generation of hard analytical work -- and much persuasion. We want the essay, maximum good per person; but what is good? To one person it is wilderness, to another it is book response, ski lodges for century thousands. To one it is response, estuaries to legalization essay introduction, nourish ducks for hunters to shoot; to another it is factory land. Book. Comparing one good with another is, we usually say, impossible because goods are incommensurable.

Incommensurables cannot be compared. Theoretically this may be true; but in help college essays, real life incommensurables are commensurable. Only a criterion of judgment and a system of weighting are needed. In nature the response, criterion is survival. Is it better for a species to be small and analyzing essay questions, hideable, or large and worksheets, powerful? Natural selection commensurates the twentieth century of robinson a collection of critical, incommensurables. The compromise achieved depends on a natural weighting of the values of the variables. Man must imitate this process. There is no doubt that in fact he already does, but unconsciously. It is when the hidden decisions are made explicit that the arguments begin. The problem for the years ahead is to work out an acceptable theory of weighting.

Synergistic effects, nonlinear variation, and difficulties in discounting the future make the intellectual problem difficult, but not (in principle) insoluble. Has any cultural group solved this practical problem at the present time, even on an intuitive level? One simple fact proves that none has: there is no prosperous population in the world today that has, and has had for some time, a growth rate of zero. Any people that has intuitively identified its optimum point will soon reach it, after which its growth rate becomes and book worksheets, remains zero. Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidence that a population is below its optimum. However, by any reasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations on earth today are (in general) the most miserable.

This association (which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimistic assumption that the positive growth rate of a population is evidence that it has yet to reach its optimum. We can make little progress in working toward optimum population size until we explicitly exorcise the and now, spirit of Adam Smith in the field of practical demography. In economic affairs, The Wealth of Nations (1776) popularized the invisible hand, the idea that an individual who intends only his own gain, is, as it were, led by an invisible hand to promote#133;the public interest. [5] Adam Smith did not assert that this was invariably true, and perhaps neither did any of his followers. But he contributed to a dominant tendency of thought that has ever since interfered with positive action based on rational analysis, namely, the tendency to assume that decisions reached individually will, in book worksheets, fact, be the then and now, best decisions for an entire society. If this assumption is response worksheets, correct it justifies the continuance of our present policy of laissez faire in reproduction. If it is correct we can assume that men will control their individual fecundity so as to produce the optimum population. If the assumption is not correct, we need to reexamine our individual freedoms to see which ones are defensible. Tragedy of communication then and now essay, Freedom in a Commons. The rebuttal to the invisible hand in population control is to be found in a scenario first sketched in book response, a little-known Pamphlet in 1833 by a mathematical amateur named William Forster Lloyd (1794-1852). Essay Introduction. [6] We may well call it the book worksheets, tragedy of the commons, using the word tragedy as the philosopher Whitehead used it [7]: The essence of dramatic tragedy is not unhappiness.

It resides in the solemnity of the remorseless working of things. He then goes on to say, This inevitableness of destiny can only be illustrated in terms of human life by incidents which in analyzing questions, fact involve unhappiness. For it is only by them that the futility of book response, escape can be made evident in the drama. The tragedy of the commons develops in this way. Picture a pasture open to all. It is to be expected that each herdsman will try to keep as many cattle as possible on the commons. Questions. Such an arrangement may work reasonably satisfactorily for centuries because tribal wars, poaching, and disease keep the numbers of both man and beast well below the carrying capacity of the land. Finally, however, comes the day of reckoning, that is, the day when the long-desired goal of social stability becomes a reality. Book. At this point, the inherent logic of the commons remorselessly generates tragedy. As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximize his gain.

Explicitly or implicitly, more or less consciously, he asks, What is the questions, utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd? This utility has one negative and one positive component. 1. Worksheets. The positive component is a function of the increment of one animal. Analyzing Test Questions. Since the herdsman receives all the proceeds from the sale of the additional animal, the response, positive utility is nearly + 1. 2. The negative component is a function of the additional overgrazing created by one more animal. Since, however, the effects of overgrazing are shared by all the herdsmen, the negative utility for any particular decision­making herdsman is only a fraction of - 1. Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the essay, only sensible course for book him to communication essay, pursue is to add another animal to his herd.

And another. But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is response worksheets, locked into a system that compels him to increase his herd without limit -- in essays story of an hour, a world that is limited. Book Response Worksheets. Ruin is the destination toward which all men rush, each pursuing his own best interest in a society that believes in the freedom of the commons. Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all. Some would say that this is a platitude.

Would that it were! In a sense, it was learned thousands of years ago, but natural selection favors the forces of psychological denial. [8] The individual benefits as an legalization of marijuana essay individual from his ability to deny the response, truth even though society as a whole, of which he is a part, suffers. Of Marijuana. Education can counteract the natural tendency to do the wrong thing, but the inexorable succession of generations requires that the basis for this knowledge be constantly refreshed. A simple incident that occurred a few years ago in Leominster, Massachusetts shows how perishable the knowledge is. During the Christmas shopping season the response worksheets, parking meters downtown were covered with plastic bags that bore tags reading: Do not open until after Christmas. Free parking courtesy of the mayor and structure an essay on advertising, city council. In other words, facing the response worksheets, prospect of an increased demand for already scarce space, the city fathers reinstituted the system of the commons. (Cynically, we suspect that they gained more votes than they lost by this retrogressive act.) In an approximate way, the then, logic of the commons has been understood for a long time, perhaps since the discovery of agriculture or the invention of private property in real estate.

But it is understood mostly only in special cases which are not sufficiently generalized. Even at this late date, cattlemen leasing national land on the Western ranges demonstrate no more than an ambivalent understanding, in book, constantly pressuring federal authorities to increase the head count to the point where overgrazing produces erosion and weed-dominance. College. Likewise, the response worksheets, oceans of the world continue to suffer from the survival of the philosophy of the commons. Maritime nations still respond automatically to structure on advertising, the shibboleth of the freedom of the seas. Professing to book response worksheets, believe in the inexhaustible resources of the oceans, they bring species after species of fish and whales closer to then, extinction. [9] The National Parks present another instance of the working out of the tragedy of the commons. At present, they are open to response worksheets, all, without limit. Legalization Of Marijuana Essay. The parks themselves are limited in worksheets, extent -- there is only one Yosemite Valley -- whereas population seems to grow without limit.

The values that visitors seek in the parks are steadily eroded. Essay Test. Plainly, we must soon cease to treat the parks as commons or they will be of no value to anyone. What shall we do? We have several options. We might sell them off as private property. We might keep them as public property, but allocate the right to enter them. The allocation might be on the basis of book worksheets, wealth, by the use of an auction system. It might be on the basis of analysis story of an, merit, as defined by some agreed­upon standards. It might be by lottery. Or it might be on a first-come, first-served basis, administered to long queues. These, I think, are all objectionable.

But we must choose -- or acquiesce in the destruction of the commons that we call our National Parks. In a reverse way, the tragedy of the commons reappears in problems of pollution. Here it is book response worksheets, not a question of taking something out of the commons, but of putting something in -- sewage, or chemical, radioactive, and heat wastes into water; noxious and dangerous fumes into the air; and distracting and unpleasant advertising signs into the line of sight. The calculations of utility are much the same as before. The rational man finds that his share of the twentieth century interpretations a collection of critical, cost of the wastes he discharges into the commons is less than the cost of purifying his wastes before releasing them.

Since this is true for book response everyone, we are locked into a system of fouling our own nest, so long as we behave only as independent, rational, free enterprisers. The tragedy of the commons as a food basket is averted by private property, or something formally like it. And Now Essay. But the air and waters surrounding us cannot readily be fenced, and so the tragedy of the commons as a cesspool must be prevented by different means, by coercive laws or taxing devices that make it cheaper for the polluter to treat his pollutants than to discharge them untreated. Book Response. We have not progressed as far with the solution of this problem as we have with the first. Indeed, our particular concept of private property, which deters us from essays on the hour exhausting the positive resources of the earth, favors pollution. The owner of response, a factory on help college essays, the bank of a stream -- whose property extends to the middle of the stream -- often has difficulty seeing why it is worksheets, not his natural right to muddy the essay, waters flowing past his door. The law, always behind the times, requires elaborate stitching and fitting to response worksheets, adapt it to essays hour, this newly perceived aspect of the commons. The pollution problem is a consequence of population. It did not much matter how a lonely American frontiersman disposed of his waste.

Flowing water purifies itself every ten miles, my grandfather used to say, and the myth was near enough to the truth when he was a boy, for there were not too many people. But as population became denser, the natural chemical and biological recycling processes became overloaded, calling for a redefinition of property rights. How to response, Legislate Temperance? Analysis of the pollution problem as a function of population density uncovers a not generally recognized principle of morality, namely: the then, morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is performed. [10] Using the book response worksheets, commons as a cesspool does not harm the analysis essays on the of an, general public under frontier conditions, because there is no public; the worksheets, same behavior in a metropolis is unbearable. A hundred and fifty years ago a plainsman could kill an American bison, cut out only the communication then essay, tongue for his dinner, and discard the rest of the animal. He was not in any important sense being wasteful. Today, with only a few thousand bison left, we would be appalled at such behavior. In passing, it is worth noting that the morality of an act cannot be determined from a photograph. One does not know whether a man killing an elephant or setting fire to the grassland is harming others until one knows the total system in book, which his act appears.

One picture is help college essays, worth a thousand words, said an ancient Chinese; but it may take ten thousand words to book, validate it. It is as tempting to ecologists as it is to reformers in general to try to persuade others by way of the photographic shortcut. But the essence of an argument cannot be photographed: it must be presented rationally -- in words. That morality is system-sensitive escaped the attention of most codifiers of ethics in the past. Thou shalt not#133; is the form of traditional ethical directives which make no allowance for particular circumstances. The laws of our society follow the pattern of ancient ethics, and therefore are poorly suited to governing a complex, crowded, changeable world. Our epicyclic solution is to augment statutory law with administrative law. Since it is practically impossible to spell out all the conditions under which it is safe to burn trash in the back yard or to help essays, run an automobile without smog­control, by law we delegate the details to bureaus.

The result is book response, administrative law, which is rightly feared for an ancient reason -- Quis custodies ipsos custodes? --Who shall watch the watchers themselves? John Adams said that we must have a government of laws and for writing, not men. Bureau administrators, trying to evaluate the morality of acts in the total system, are singularly liable to corruption, producing a government by men, not laws. Prohibition is easy to legislate (though not necessarily to enforce); but how do we legislate temperance? Experience indicates that it can be accomplished best through the mediation of administrative law.

We limit possibilities unnecessarily if we suppose that the sentiment of Quis custodiet denies us the use of administrative law. We should rather retain the phrase as a perpetual reminder of fearful dangers we cannot avoid. The great challenge facing us now is to invent the corrective feedbacks that are needed to keep custodians honest. We must find ways to book, legitimate the needed authority of both the custodians and interpretations a collection essays, the corrective feedbacks. Freedom to Breed Is Intolerable. The tragedy of the commons is involved in population problems in another way.

In a world governed solely by the principle of dog eat dog --if indeed there ever was such a world--how many children a family had would not be a matter of public concern. Parents who bred too exuberantly would leave fewer descendants, not more, because they would be unable to care adequately for their children. David Lack and others have found that such a negative feedback demonstrably controls the fecundity of birds. [11] But men are not birds, and have not acted like them for millenniums, at least. If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over breeding brought its own punishment to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of book, families. But our society is deeply committed to of marijuana, the welfare state, [12] and book worksheets, hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class (or indeed any distinguishable and cohesive group) that adopts over breeding as a policy to for writing an essay, secure its own aggrandizement? [13] To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the book, belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to on the hour, lock the world into a tragic course of action.

Unfortunately this is just the course of action that is book worksheets, being pursued by the United Nations. Help College Essays. In late 1967, some thirty nations agreed to the following: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. It follows that any choice and decision with regard to response, the size of the family must irrevocably rest with the family itself, and cannot be made by anyone else.'' [14] It is painful to have to deny categorically the analyzing essay test, validity of this right; denying it, one feels as uncomfortable as a resident of Salem, Massachusetts, who denied the reality of witches in the seventeenth century. At the present time, in liberal quarters, something like a taboo acts to inhibit criticism of the United Nations. There is book response worksheets, a feeling that the United Nations is structure, our last and best hope, that we shouldn't find fault with it; we shouldn't play into the hands of the book worksheets, archconservatives. However, let us not forget what Robert Louis Stevenson said: The truth that is suppressed by friends is the readiest weapon of the enemy.

If we love the analysis essays story of an, truth we must openly deny the book, validity of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, even though it is promoted by essay the United Nations. We should also join with Kingsley Davis [15] in book response, attempting to analysis essays on the hour, get Planned Parenthood-World Population to see the error of its ways in embracing the same tragic ideal. Conscience Is Self-Eliminating. It is a mistake to think that we can control the breeding of mankind in the long run by an appeal to conscience. Charles Galton Darwin made this point when he spoke on the centennial of the publication of his grandfather's great book.

The argument is straightforward and Darwinian. People vary. Confronted with appeals to book worksheets, limit breeding, some people will undoubtedly respond to the plea more than others. Those who have more children will produce a larger fraction of the next generation than those with more susceptible consciences. The differences will be accentuated, generation by generation. In C. G. Darwin's words: It may well be that it would take hundreds of generations for the progenitive instinct to develop in this way, but if it should do so, nature would have taken her revenge, and the variety Homo contracipiens would become extinct and would be replaced by the variety Homo progenitivus. [16] The argument assumes that conscience or the desire for children (no matter which) is hereditary-but hereditary only in essays, the most general formal sense. The result will be the same whether the book response, attitude is transmitted through germ cells, or exosomatically, to use A. J. Lotka's term. (If one denies the latter possibility as well as the former, then what's the point of education?) The argument has here been stated in essays, the context of the response, population problem, but it applies equally well to any instance in which society appeals to an individual exploiting a commons to restrain himself for legalization of marijuana essay introduction the general good -- by book worksheets means of his conscience. To make such an appeal is to then and now, set up a selective system that works toward the elimination of book response, conscience from the race.

Pathogenic Effects of Conscience. The long-term disadvantage of an appeal to conscience should be enough to condemn it; but it has serious short-term disadvantages as well. If we ask a man who is exploiting a commons to desist in the name of conscience, what are we saying to him? What does he hear? -- not only at the moment but also in the wee small hours of the night when, half asleep, he remembers not merely the words we used but also the nonverbal communication cues we gave him unawares? Sooner or later, consciously or subconsciously, he senses that he has received two communications, and that they are contradictory: 1. (intended communication) If you don't do as we ask, we will openly condemn you for not acting like a responsible citizen; 2. (the unintended communication) If you do behave as we ask, we will secretly condemn you for on the story hour a simpleton who can be shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the commons. Every man then is caught in what Bateson has called a double bind. Bateson and response, his co-workers have made a plausible case for viewing the double bind as an important causative factor in the genesis of schizophrenia. College. [17] The double bind may not always be so damaging, but it always endangers the mental health of anyone to whom it is applied. A bad conscience, said Nietzsche, is a kind of illness. To conjure up a conscience in others is tempting to response worksheets, anyone who wishes to legalization introduction, extend his control beyond the book, legal limits.

Leaders at the highest level succumb to this temptation. Has any president during the past generation failed to call on labor unions to analyzing, moderate voluntarily their demands for higher wages, or to steel companies to honor voluntary guidelines on worksheets, prices? I can recall none. The rhetoric used on such occasions is designed to produce feelings of guilt in noncooperators. For centuries it was assumed without proof that guilt was a valuable, perhaps even an communication then indispensable, ingredient of the civilized life. Now, in this post-Freudian world, we doubt it. Paul Goodman speaks from the modern point of view when he says: No good has ever come from feeling guilty, neither intelligence, policy, nor compassion. The guilty do not pay attention to book worksheets, the object but only to themselves, and not even to their own interests, which might make sense, but to their anxieties.'' [18] One does not have to be a professional psychiatrist to see the consequences of anxiety. We in the Western world are just emerging from a dreadful two centuries-long Dark Ages of Eros that was sustained partly by prohibition laws, but perhaps more effectively by twentieth interpretations crusoe the anxiety-generating mechanisms of education.

Alex Comfort has told the story well in The Anxiety Makers; [19] it is not a pretty one. Since proof is difficult, we may even concede that the results of anxiety may sometimes, from certain points of view, be desirable. The larger question we should ask is whether, as a matter of policy, we should ever encourage the use of a technique the tendency (if not the intention) of which is psychologically pathogenic. We hear much talk these days of responsible parenthood; the coupled words are incorporated into the titles of some organizations devoted to birth control. Some people have proposed massive propaganda campaigns to instill responsibility into the nation's (or the world's) breeders. But what is the meaning of the word conscience?

When we use the book, word responsibility in help, the absence of book response, substantial sanctions are we not trying to browbeat a free man in a commons into essays on the of an hour acting against his own interest? Responsibility is a verbal counterfeit for worksheets a substantial quid pro quo. It is an attempt to get something for nothing. If the word responsibility is to be used at all, I suggest that it be in the sense Charles Frankel uses it. [20] Responsibility, says this philosopher, is the product of definite social arrangements. Notice that Frankel calls for social arrangements -- not propaganda. Mutual Coercion Mutually Agreed Upon.

The social arrangements that produce responsibility are arrangements that create coercion, of some sort. Consider bank robbing. The man who takes money from a bank acts as if the bank were a commons. How do we prevent such action? Certainly not by analyzing essay questions trying to control his behavior solely by a verbal appeal to his sense of responsibility. Response. Rather than rely on propaganda we follow Frankel's lead and insist that a bank is not a commons; we seek the essays on the story of an hour, definite social arrangements that will keep it from becoming a commons.

That we thereby infringe on the freedom of would-be robbers we neither deny nor regret. The morality of bank robbing is particularly easy to response worksheets, understand because we accept complete prohibition of this activity. We are willing to say Thou shalt not rob banks, without providing for exceptions. But temperance also can be created by communication and now essay coercion. Taxing is a good coercive device. To keep downtown shoppers temperate in their use of response worksheets, parking space we introduce parking meters for short periods, and traffic fines for longer ones. We need not actually forbid a citizen to park as long as he wants to; we need merely make it increasingly expensive for analysis story of an him to do so. Not prohibition, but carefully biased options are what we offer him. A Madison Avenue man might call this persuasion; I prefer the greater candor of the word coercion.

Coercion is a dirty word to response, most liberals now, but it need not forever be so. Then And Now. As with the four-letter words, its dirtiness can be cleansed away by exposure to the light, by book saying it over and over without apology or embarrassment. To many, the for writing, word coercion implies arbitrary decisions of distant and irresponsible bureaucrats; but this is not a necessary part of its meaning. The only kind of coercion I recommend is worksheets, mutual coercion, mutually agreed upon by the majority of the people affected. To say that we mutually agree to coercion is not to analyzing essay test questions, say that we are required to enjoy it, or even to pretend we enjoy it. Who enjoys taxes? We all grumble about them. But we accept compulsory taxes because we recognize that voluntary taxes would favor the conscienceless. Book Response Worksheets. We institute and (grumblingly) support taxes and other coercive devices to escape the horror of the commons. An alternative to the commons need not be perfectly just to be preferable.

With real estate and other material goods, the alternative we have chosen is the institution of private property coupled with legal inheritance. Is this system perfectly just? As a genetically trained biologist I deny that it is. It seems to me that, if there are to be differences in individual inheritance, legal possession should be perfectly correlated with biological inheritance-that those who are biologically more fit to be the custodians of property and power should legally inherit more. But genetic recombination continually makes a mockery of the doctrine of like father, like son implicit in our laws of legal inheritance. An idiot can inherit millions, and a trust fund can keep his estate intact.

We must admit that our legal system of private property plus inheritance is unjust -- but we put up with it because we are not convinced, at the moment, that anyone has invented a better system. The alternative of the commons is too horrifying to contemplate. Injustice is preferable to total ruin. It is one of the peculiarities of the warfare between reform and test, the status quo that it is thoughtlessly governed by a double standard. Whenever a reform measure is proposed it is often defeated when its opponents triumphantly discover a flaw in it. As Kingsley Davis has pointed out, [21] worshipers of the status quo sometimes imply that no reform is possible without unanimous agreement, an implication contrary to book response, historical fact. As nearly as I can make out, automatic rejection of proposed reforms is based on one of analyzing test, two unconscious assumptions: (1) that the status quo is perfect; or (2) that the choice we face is between reform and no action; if the book worksheets, proposed reform is introduction, imperfect, we presumably should take no action at all, while we wait for a perfect proposal.

But we can never do nothing. That which we have done for thousands of book worksheets, years is also action. It also produces evils. Once we are aware that the status quo is action, we can then compare its discoverable advantages and communication, disadvantages with the book response, predicted advantages and disadvantages of the proposed reform, discounting as best we can for our lack of experience. On the basis of such a comparison, we can make a rational decision which will not involve the unworkable assumption that only perfect systems are tolerable. Recognition of interpretations of robinson crusoe a collection of critical essays, Necessity. Perhaps the simplest summary of this analysis of man's population problems is this: the commons, if justifiable at all, is justifiable only under conditions of low-population density. As the human population has increased, the response, commons has had to be abandoned in one aspect after another. First we abandoned the commons in food gathering, enclosing farm land and restricting pastures and hunting and fishing areas. Communication And Now Essay. These restrictions are still not complete throughout the world. Somewhat later we saw that the commons as a place for waste disposal would also have to be abandoned.

Restrictions on the disposal of domestic sewage are widely accepted in the Western world; we are still struggling to close the commons to pollution by book response automobiles, factories, insecticide sprayers, fertilizing operations, and atomic energy installations. In a still more embryonic state is our recognition of the evils of the commons in matters of pleasure. There is almost no restriction on the propagation of sound waves in the public medium. Analyzing. The shopping public is assaulted with mindless music, without its consent. Our government has paid out billions of dollars to create a supersonic transport which would disturb 50,000 people for every one person whisked from coast to worksheets, coast 3 hours faster. Advertisers muddy the airwaves of radio and then, television and pollute the view of travelers. We are a long way from book response worksheets outlawing the legalization essay introduction, commons in matters of pleasure. Is this because our Puritan inheritance makes us view pleasure as something of a sin, and pain (that is, the pollution of advertising) as the sign of virtue? Every new enclosure of the commons involves the infringement of somebody's personal liberty. Infringements made in response worksheets, the distant past are accepted because no contemporary complains of a loss. It is the newly proposed infringements that we vigorously oppose; cries of rights and freedom fill the air.

But what does freedom mean? When men mutually agreed to pass laws against communication and now robbing, mankind became more free, not less so. Individuals locked into the logic of the commons are free only to bring on universal ruin; once they see the necessity of worksheets, mutual coercion, they become free to pursue other goals. I believe it was Hegel who said, Freedom is the recognition of necessity. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all.

At the moment, to legalization essay, avoid hard decisions many of us are tempted to propagandize for conscience and worksheets, responsible parenthood. Twentieth Century. The temptation must be resisted, because an appeal to independently acting consciences selects for the disappearance of all conscience in response, the long run, and an increase in anxiety in the short. The only way we can preserve and nurture other and more precious freedoms is by relinquishing the freedom to breed, and that very soon. Freedom is the recognition of necessity -- and it is the role of essays on the story of an, education to reveal to response worksheets, all the necessity of abandoning the freedom to breed. Only so, can we put an end to this aspect of the tragedy of the analyzing questions, commons. 1. J. B. Wiesner and response worksheets, H. F. York, Scientific American 211 (No. 4), 27 (1964). 2. G. Hardin, Journal of Heredity 50, 68 (1959), S. von Hoernor, Science 137, 18, (1962). 3. Analysis Essays Of An Hour. J. von Neumann and O. Morgenstern, Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1947), p. 11.

4. J. H. Fremlin, New Scientist, No. 415 (1964), p. 285. 5. A. Smith, The Wealth of Nations (Modern Library, New York, 1937), p. 423. 6. W. F. Lloyd, Two Lectures on the Checks to Population (Oxford University Press, Oxford, England, 1833). 7. A. N. Whitehead, Science and the Modern World (Mentor, New York, 1948), p. 17. 8. G. Hardin, Ed., Population, Evolution, and Birth Control (Freeman, San Francisco, 1964), p. 56. 9. S. Response Worksheets. McVay, Scientific American 216 (No.

8), 13 (1966). 10. J. Essay. Fletcher, Situation Ethics (Westminster, Philadelphia, 1966). 11. D. Lack, The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers (Clarendon Press, Oxford, England, 1954). 12. Book Worksheets. H. Girvetz, From Wealth to Welfare (Stanford University Press, Stanford, Calif, 1950). 13.

G. Hardin, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 6, 366 (1963). 14. Structure For Writing On Advertising. U Thant, International Planned Parenthood News, No. 168 (February 1968), p. Book. 3. 15. K. Davis, Science 158, 730 (1967). 16. S. College Essays. Tax, Ed., Evolution After Darwin (University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1960), vol. 2, p. 469. 17.

G. Bateson, D. D. Jackson, J. Haley, J. Weakland, Behavioral Science 1, 251 (1956). 18. P. Goodman, New York Review of Books 10 (8), 22 (23 May 1968). 19. A. Comfort, The Anxiety Makers (Nelson, London, 1967).

20. C. Frankel, The Case for Modern Man (Harper Row, New York, 1955), p. 203. 21. J. D. Roslansky, Genetics and the Future of Man (Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1966), p. 177. THE TRAGEDY OF THE COMMON REVISITED. by Beryl Crowe (1969) reprinted in response, MANAGING THE COMMONS. by Garrett Hardin and John Baden. W.H. Freeman, 1977; ISBN 0-7167-0476-5.

There has developed in the contemporary natural sciences a recognition that there is a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, and environmental corruption, for analyzing essay which there are no technical solutions. There is also an book response increasing recognition among contemporary social scientists that there is for writing, a subset of problems, such as population, atomic war, environmental corruption, and the recovery of a livable urban environment, for which there are no current political solutions. The thesis of this article is that the common area shared by book worksheets these two subsets contains most of the critical problems that threaten the very existence of of marijuana essay, contemporary man. [p. 53] ASSUMPTIONS NECESSARY TO AVOID THE TRAGEDY.

In passing the book worksheets, technically insoluble problems over to the political and communication and now, social realm for solution, Hardin made three critical assumptions: (1) that there exists, or can be developed, a 'criterion of worksheets, judgment and system of weighting . . .' that will 'render the incommensurables . . . commensurable . . . Communication Then And Now Essay. ' in real life; (2) that, possessing this criterion of judgment, 'coercion can be mutually agreed upon,' and that the application of coercion to effect a solution to book response worksheets, problems will be effective in modern society; and. (3) that the administrative system, supported by the criterion of judgment and century of robinson crusoe a collection of critical, access to coercion, can and will protect the commons from further desecration. [p. 55] ERODING MYTH OF THE COMMON VALUE SYSTEM. In America there existed, until very recently, a set of conditions which perhaps made the solution to Hardin's subset possible; we lived with the response, myth that we were 'one people, indivisible. . . .' This myth postulated that we were the great 'melting pot' of the essay, world wherein the diverse cultural ores of Europe were poured into the crucible of the frontier experience to produce a new alloy -- an American civilization. This new civilization was presumably united by a common value system that was democratic, equalitarian, and existing under universally enforceable rules contained in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In the United States today, however, there is emerging a new set of behavior patterns which suggest that the myth is either dead or dying. Instead of believing and behaving in accordance with the myth, large sectors of the book response worksheets, population are developing life-styles and value hierarchies that give contemporary Americans an appearance more closely analogous to the particularistic, primitive forms of introduction, 'tribal' organizations in geographic proximity than to that shining new alloy, the American civilization. [p. Book Response Worksheets. 56]

Looking at a more recent analysis of the sickness of the core city, Wallace F. Smith has argued that the productive model of the city is no longer viable for the purposes of economic analysis. Legalization. Instead, he develops a model of the city as a site for leisure consumption, and then seems to suggest that the nature of this model is book, such is such that the city cannot regain its health because the leisure demands are value-based and, hence do not admit to essays on the story hour, compromise and accommodation; consequently there is no way of deciding among these value- oriented demands that are being made on book, the core city. In looking for the cause of the structure for writing on advertising, erosion of the book response worksheets, myth of a common value system, it seems to me that so long as our perceptions and knowledge of other groups were formed largely through the written media of analyzing essay test, communication, the American myth that we were a giant melting pot of worksheets, equalitarians could be sustained. In such a perceptual field it is an essay, tenable, if not obvious, that men are motivated by worksheets interests. Interests can always be compromised and accommodated without undermining our very being by sacrificing values. Under the impact of electronic media, however, this psychological distance has broken down and now we discover that these people with whom we could formerly compromise on interests are not, after all, really motivated by interests but by values. Analysis Essays On The Story Hour. Their behavior in our very living room betrays a set of values, moreover, that are incompatible with our own, and worksheets, consequently the compromises that we make are not those of contract but of communication, culture. Response Worksheets. While the former are acceptable, any form of compromise on the latter is not a form of rational behavior but is rather a clear case of either apostasy or heresy.

Thus we have arrived not at an age of legalization essay, accommodation but one of confrontation. In such an age 'incommensurables' remain 'incommensurable' in real life. [p. 59]

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on book City Life vs. Village Life! One of the most striking features of analysis story of an, industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government.

Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. Worksheets. The urban population in England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the century interpretations of robinson crusoe urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, “In the book response worksheets rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour,” The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the college essays city prevails in village life.

The type of village family is generally patriarchal in which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to whether and whom the individual should marry for the maintenance of family name. There is lesser freedom in the selection of response, life partner. There are few love-marriages.

Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by legalization of marijuana family traditions. Response Worksheets. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in essay sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individual’s life in book response village community. And Now. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life.

The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the activity of specialized agencies. Book Response. Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and social workers take over the regulatory functions of the communication essay family circle. A “free lance” detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the book worksheets village while such a person, even his norms of century interpretations of robinson a collection, conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes.

If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to book, Davis, “He can escape the oppressive control of structure for writing on advertising, any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers.” It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Book Response Worksheets. Thus, in a city as opposed to the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong ‘we-feeling’ in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and sorrows of essays on the story, each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody.

Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in village community is worksheets rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. For Writing An Essay On Advertising. Things are done by mutual understanding.

In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of response, a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in structure on advertising the lower storey do not know the people living in the third or fourth storey. There is an worksheets atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an analyzing essay test questions inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in book response a particular context and in a particular segment of life. In the words of Gist and Halbert, ‘The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships.” Most of the relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and twentieth of robinson crusoe of critical rearing animals. Their standard of worksheets, living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.

Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Country life suggests ‘save’, City life suggests ‘spend’. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to help, beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and adventurous spirit has no place in rural community.

The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is book worksheets shown and essays story of an hour what is concealed, is much sharper in response the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and structure for writing urban community is concerning the book modes of production. In the on the of an village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the response same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the analysis essays on the story of an “paper-expert”, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the worksheets social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in legalization of marijuana essay introduction various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social.

The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Book Response. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and college lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of book worksheets, quick promotion.

The individual is test questions rated more in terms of accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, “The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in a kettle. Stability is the worksheets typical trait for the one mobility is the typical trait for the other.” Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the help city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into book response, different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. Then Essay. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to response worksheets, a greater extent than in for writing on advertising India.

The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the response city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of “middle-class” residence, of industrial concentration, and so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the help college life of women. If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Industrialization and specialization have brought women to workshop and worksheets factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of domesticity. As MacIver observes, ‘The individualization of women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of college, relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of society.” The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in response constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of essay questions, nature are beyond his control and reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and response becomes superstitious and religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. The city dweller is more tolerant in help essays matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions.

According to Bogardus, “Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life.” The city is ruled by book worksheets impersonality of law and the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Help Essays. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is book response much mutual aid. If a house is to be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is legalization of marijuana a good deal of book response, visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong ‘we feeling’.

The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanite’s attachments and detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. The city instead of analyzing essay questions, suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and response women leave the rural community for urban community because the legalization of marijuana essay latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. But sometimes the men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and despair in the city. So one should leave the village for book response city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the analysis essays of an hour features that distinguish rural from urban life.

In the city “opposite conditions are found”, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of book worksheets, many kind’s supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an structure on advertising intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense.” It may, however, be pointed out book worksheets that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the and now essay villages are linked with the city through modes of transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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