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Buddhacarita: The Life of the Buddha essay. At the time of the Buddha, the primarily rural areas of India were transforming into cover urban centers. Powerful rulers began to conquer villages where democracy prevailed. Such small democratic consolidations were called sanghas ; later on, the term would become an essential of Buddhism. Many citizens of sanghas began to apprehend themselves as individuals; they developed a great number of theories and teachings concerning this issue. These theories were popularized throughout India by shramanas , vagrant philosophers. Some of these teachings were extremely religious; others were atheistic. Therefore, the Buddha, who appeared in the core of these different philosophies, was not only good application essay, a religious leader. He had to find a golden grain of truth in all these philosophical teachings. The Buddha believed that birth means life. The result of for college professor birth is “existence,” so a desire for existence results in becoming alive.
This desire is related to the human nature and physical body, which are conditioned by understanding and thinking. Hence, mind and thinking control the write good application essay, desire for life; consequently, they control death. Young prince asserted, “ but remembering that the world is transitory, my mind cannot find pleasure in them. Old age, disease, and for college professor, death if these three things did not exist” (A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a 52). It became a basis of the Buddha’s concept of dukkha , translated as “suffering” that is reflected in the Four Noble Truths. The Buddha has shaped the philosophy of Buddhism based on his personal experience and reflections. The paper studies The Buddhacarita as the primary source of the Buddhism teaching and tries to find interrelation between the doctrine and the life events of its founder.
According to rap lyris thesis, The Buddha-Carita written by A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a, Buddha was a prince from a royal family who lived in the north of India, and his real name was Siddhartha Gautama. The story says that, at the boy’s birth, the cover letter professor position, holy men came to the palace and foretold that the prince would be either a prominent king or a well-known holy man. Siddhartha’s father, the King, was not going to allow his son becoming a holy man, so he kept the young prince in the palace and was satisfying all Siddhartha’s needs and desires. Essays On Antibiotics Resistance In Bacteria! In a few years, the boy got married and gave birth to a son. Nevertheless, after Siddhartha had discovered the four things that became the prime focus of his life, his destiny was decided.
Among four men that managed to change his life drastically was a poor one, a sick one, a dead one, and a holy one; these four aspects of life became the basis of the Buddha’s teaching. Siddhartha considered that only the holy man was purely happy, so prince renounced his title and status to become a walk this path. The prince responded to the men, who had tried to reason him, “But I am fearful and exceedingly bewildered, as I ponder the terrors of old age, death, and cover professor, disease; I can find no peace, no self-command, much less can I find pleasure” (A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a 54). Siddhartha followed the philosophies of many holy teachers. The prince refused all the rap lyris thesis, desires of his body; he ate one grain of rice per day. Ultimately, Siddhartha understood that asceticism and offering sacrifices were against position the right path, it just made him suffer pointlessly. Thesis! He suggested a middle waybetween religious devotion and cover letter professor position, ordinary life, a doctrine that could be acceptable for read online anyone. Therefore, the Buddha began feeding without strict restriction; however, he continued seeking for further excellent tranquility (A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a 118).
In a deer park, Siddhartha became an cover letter for college, “awaken one”; he was sitting at the holy Bodhi Tree and could not move until he explored the essays in bacteria, existence to letter professor, his ultimate satisfaction. After he had subdued the demon, Mara, his trance became profound, and he remembered his past lives. He saw thousands of write application essay his births and deaths, as well as all his living forms, which had compassion in his heart. Professor! Nowadays, the day when Siddhartha had received his extraordinary experience, is considered as the most significant date for all Buddhists. Since that day, the prince received the new title - the Buddha . Even today, Buddhists call the a persausive essay, person who has achieved enlightenment as a Buddha . Only by reaching enlightenment, Siddhartha was able to comprehend and explain a fundamental plan that would allow humanity understand the sense of life, birth and death, as well as the delusion of these stages. A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a describes the scene when the Buddha awakened, “As he sat, his aim accomplished by for college, his rejection of sin for the good of the world” (170). The Buddha’s major concern was the point that life includes suffering. He believed that suffering is in everything and everybody. The fundamental doctrine of Buddhism, the essay, Four Noble Truths, is centered around the philosophy of suffering.
The First Truth is the truth of suffering; the Second Truth is the truth of the cause of letter for college position suffering; the Third Truth is the truth of the cessation of suffering. Finally, the Fourth Truth is the truth of the path that leads to the cessation of suffering. Every text and teaching of Buddhism is saturated by the notion of “suffering.” However, the meaning that Buddhism inserts into a term “suffering” is much deeper than its usual vocabulary meaning; the word means “a change” or “ultimate dissatisfaction.” The basis of the First Noble Truth is that living means suffering; everyone on the Earth suffers from essay say twilight illnesses, pain, injury, and aging. In general, life is position incomplete and imperfect; death is inevitable; hence, the world is an object of impermanence. The impermanence means suffering. People are not able to keep desirable things or be happy permanently, moments of pleasure and beloved people will pass by; therefore, life is suffering. The origin of suffering is an attachment to the transient objects, and it is the Second Noble Truth.
These transient objects include physical objects, ideas, and feelings. Desire, love, hate, vanity, ambitions, and pride are causes of suffering. The attainable cessation of suffering is the Third Noble Truth; it represents the idea that suffering can be ended by essay, achieving inner peace and alienation from all kinds of attachment. Achieving and perfecting serenity and cover letter for college position, tranquility is a multilayered process that finally leads to Nirvana. Argument Thesis Statement! Nirvana is cover letter a state of absolute liberty from essay say twilight negative feelings, anxiety, and problems. The pass of cessation of suffering is the Forth Noble Truth. It is the golden mean between the two different poles of human self-expression: hedonism, which is an absolute self-indulgence, and asceticism, which is an excessive self-mortification. Cessation of suffering stops the cycle of rebirth (A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a 130-135).
Enlightenment can also be achieved by following the Eightfold path that consists of eight steps of proper acting and cover professor, thinking. The first step is a right seeing or understanding: it includes ensuring that things are seen clearly, maintaining things in the prospect of rebirth, and say twilight, considering the impact of cover for college professor position actions on karma. Resistance In Bacteria! The Buddha teaches people to think and reflect about for college their anger. Often, there is no reason for being angry or frustrated. The second step is a right speaking: people should be sincere and truthful. The third step is a right action: people must act in a right way. The Buddha expected that people would care about their better existence and strive for knowledge of how to make their lives meaningful. The fifth step is a right livelihood: people should do the work they love. Essay Say Twilight! The sixth step is a right effort: everyone should act in the best possible way developing honest and kind thoughts. Cover For College Professor Position! The seventh step is a right mindfulness: the Buddha hoped that people would think comprehensively about the world. The eighth step is a right concentration: it is crucial to essays on antibiotics resistance, sit in silence, to cover professor position, achieve serenity and tranquility and think about the Buddha’s teachings.
This sitting in calmness is called meditation, and it is an essential part of the Buddhism religious rituals (A%u015Bvagho%u1E63a 152-155). The path of enlightenment and Four Noble Truths teach people to overcome human nature and achieve the deep meditation. For example, basic human instincts, such as fear, hunger, and temptation, can be overcome by strong will, pure intentions, and high goals. However, self-doubts and rap lyris, low self-esteem are the hardest feelings to overcome. Letter For College Professor! Those, who do not love and trust themselves, cannot love and trust others. Ability to love and argument essay with thesis statement, trust is vital in Buddhism. Ignoring desires and letter for college professor position, avoiding temptation provides a clear and a persausive essay, pure mind for meditation. People can apprehend themselves and understand the cover letter for college professor, sense of being through meditation. Essays On Antibiotics Resistance In Bacteria! In conclusion, the Buddha has built his teaching on his personal experience.
Events from his life became a basis for the future doctrine of Buddhism. The idea of the Four Nobel Truths, enlightenment and the Eightfold path appeared as a result of the for college professor, founders life events and argument essay thesis statement, philosophy.
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My Dream Job Essays and Research Papers. Essay: Dreams From My Father Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father is exactly what it claims to be . by title, a story of race and identity. Barack Obama comes from a diverse background, which he explores throughout the cover letter position book. Having a white American mother and black Kenyan father, he has a different experience than the write essay majority of people in society when it comes to race and cover professor identity, however still it seems similar to read the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Cross’s Black Psychological. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 1303 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: Barack Obama Dreams from My Father Barack Obama – “ Dreams From My Father-A Story of Race and Heritance” Today I want to introduce you United States President . Barack Obama’s first memoir, dreams from my father. It was first published in July 1995 as he was preparing to launch his political career and republished in August 2004.
Author: Since my book is an autobiography I won’t tell you everything about the author, I just will give some personal facts about him. Barack Obama was born in 1961 in cover letter for college professor, Honolulu, Hawaii to essay say twilight Barack Obama Senior. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr. 1586 Words | 6 Pages. Dreams from letter professor position, My Father (Barack Obama) What is My Identity? Dreams from My Father archives Barack Obama’s journey, and struggles, to find his . Essay! identity. Obama quickly admits that race is an important part of himself, and it is that quest of race and cover letter professor position identity that pushes him to argument with thesis statement question his own uniqueness. Ultimately spanning both worlds of the vastly different cultures of his life in America and his roots in Kenya causes Obama confusion and position self-doubt. Rap Lyris! It is through the steady love of his family that allows Obama to truly find acceptance. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 841 Words | 3 Pages.
Obama: Individual in the Community(Dreams of My Father) Alyna Torres QU 101 Professor Matt Tortora September 29, 2010 Dreams from My Father There are many barriers one must . overcome, and to accomplish this, one must find their distinctiveness and take a key role in the community. Throughout the novel, Dreams from my Father by our current president Barrack Obama, Barrack demonstrates the true meaning of being an individual. Cover Professor Position! He is highly active in his community, despite the fact that he is part of the black community. The economic, social, and.
A Great Way to Care , Barack Obama , Dreams from My Father 1916 Words | 5 Pages. migration. To add on, I will inform you about he migration that occurred through out my relatives lives. Read! And finally, I will speak upon the . migration that occurred through out the movie Scarface that starred Al Pacino that played Tony Montana's role. My parents weren't born in the United States, but they were looking for better lives and opportunities, so they migrated from Haiti to the United States.
My parents growing up in such a poor country that didn't provide much opportunity for them. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1984 Words | 5 Pages. and brain power. One specific example of why Obama is who he is cover for college professor position today was because of the way his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham nurtured him. Dunham was a . woman who had empathy, and write a persausive worked hard every day to achieve her goals and live the all American dream . She was a tough on for college, Obama because she knew the potential he had. Dunham was hard on him during his high school years. Rap Lyris! She often reprimanded him for not putting in a lot of effort in his studies. She taught him that you can’t just sit around waiting. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr. Cover Letter For College Professor Position! 1774 Words | 4 Pages.
A Journey of write good application, Self-Discovery and Self-Initiation. impossible because no one has just one thing that makes them who they are. Creating one’s identity is a continuous labyrinth of cover for college position, ideas, likes, dislikes, and . other factors that somehow end at essay one person and cover letter for college position affect their whole character. Having read Dreams From My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance by Barack Obama over the summer, I found out how he formed his true identity through the a persausive knowledge he gained of the different events and episodes of his life. Cover Letter Professor Position! Some people find out who they are at a very. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 2809 Words | 7 Pages.
Prepared Remarks of President Barack Obama: Back to School Event. the whole speech, and pathos when he tells about his own experience and expresses how he feels on this matter in the speech, which in general, makes it . easier to earn people's attention. “I know the feeling. When I was young my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn't have the money to send me where all the American kids went to school. So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday – at 4:30 in a persausive essay, the morning.” Feelings are important to use, especially. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1117 Words | 3 Pages. why did Barack wrote a book for his father? Dreams for my father Barack Hussein Obama was born in cover for college professor position, 1961, in Honolulu, . Hawaii. Read Essay Online! His mother was a white American girl from Kansas and his father a black man from Luo, a Kenyan tribe. Letter Position! At that time their union was unusual, so Barack had to live with that combination of races. He grew up with his mothers family far from his father and thus to essay his black origins. Barack had a hard time understanding his situation during his childhood.
He was lost. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 823 Words | 2 Pages. Dreams from My Father: A Story of for college position, Race and Inheritance Summer . Reading Assignment 1. Explain the author’s purpose for read online writing this book? The author of this book is Barack Obama, and the reason I believe he wrote this book is to share his experience growing up and for people be able to understand his personal background. He shared experiences from being raised by his mother and grandmother while his father was living in Kenya. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 530 Words | 2 Pages. Barack Obama: 'Dreams from My Father' Personal Response Number One Title: Dreams from My Father ‘A Story of Race and letter for college position Inheritance’ Author: Barack Obama Genre: . Autobiography, Life Memoir Before Barack Obama was a Politician he was an author. ‘ Dreams from My Father: A Story of thesis, Race and Inheritance’ is an for college Auto-Biography written by Barack Obama.
The book describes Obama’s life in three parts, from his birth in Honolulu, Hawaii up to the final part of the book which includes his emotional and revealing trip back to application his father’s homeland;. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 765 Words | 2 Pages. MY VACATION AT THE CITY I can still remember the time I went to the city with my family just to have a bit of relaxation since . we are over and done with our periodical examinations. Hoping that we can spend some precious time together, I felt so excited while we are on cover letter for college professor position, our way. Write Application Essay! I expected a lot of jokes and cover laughter, and full of satisfaction when we get there. After a long journey on a muddy and write a persausive essay terribly devastated nautical highway, we reach the city, the only city and cover letter for college the capital of our province. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 773 Words | 2 Pages. Life without Television When my family’s only television set went to the repair shop the other day, my parents, . my sister, and write good I thought we would have a terrible week. How could we get though the long evenings in such a quiet house?
What would it be like without all the shows to keep us company? We soon realized, though, that living without television for cover letter for college professor a while was a stroke of good fortune. It became easy for each of with thesis, us to letter for college position enjoy some activities alone, to complete some postponed chores. Anxiety , Barack Obama , Dreams from My Father 606 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream Job ? I believe that all of the men that contributed their story to Bob Greene’s “Cut” were affected by . rejection and humiliation as children. I also believe it helped them form into in bacteria, the successful individuals that they are today. Sometimes good can come out of a bad situation.
I was pretty lucky as a child, because I did not experience rejection. And if I did, it had no effect on me as an adult that I can remember. It was later on in life where I experienced not only rejection and. Coming out for college position , Employment , LGBT 2192 Words | 5 Pages. MDM SUPARNA [pic] My Dream Job Child’s Dream . Everyone has a dream . I too dream of good application essay, a job that will make me child’s dream comes true. My grandfather and father both traditional Chinese physician. Cover For College Position! They have excellent medical skill and lofty medical ethic. In China, The doctor is called ‘angles in white’, People respect them. I used to essay online get sick in my childhood.
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My Dream Job My first day in high school was so overwhelming. My heart was racing and professor . my legs were shaking. I was excited and nervous at the same time. I was so happy to write see all my friends after what seem to letter for college be a very long, summer break. Though I was glad to see all my friends, I could not help but think about what classes I was going to attend. Usually, most freshmen girls think about fashion and all the cute senior boys. On one hand, I was thinking about write a persausive all the fun, exciting, and new activities. College , Computer , Computer programming 934 Words | 3 Pages. people say I cannot achieve something in life my resilience and determination carry me through to the end. In the face of failure I am not a . person who will crumble and cover letter give up as that is the easy way but instead fight as hard as I can to achieve my goal in essays resistance, life.
When people in my life do the wrong thing it is easy to follow in order to be accepted but instead I act against it and my morals say it is cover letter professor position wrong and no matter how much they try to on antibiotics resistance make me do it my answer is always no. 4. I am a person. Barack Obama , Bill Clinton , Dreams from cover letter, My Father 446 Words | 2 Pages. working at the local Gertens was a “ dream job .” Often, while sitting in class, my attention would shift from the . teacher to rap lyris my older classmates as I would constantly overhear them talking about the letter professor ludicrous amounts of say twilight, money they made at cover for college professor the local garden goods store. Now, as an ignorant 16-year old kid who just got his driver’s license, this made my eyes widen. For the write a persausive first time in my life, the quest to acquire money was skyrocketing to the top of my priority list. My parents were slowly beginning to. Power 1442 Words | 5 Pages. accelerated his career path in law and politics. The global geopolitical has shaped and pushed him to work harder as he came to the president during the . toughest time to resolve the effect of global financial and economic crisis. - Investment in job performance: Because of letter professor position, achievement orientated-attitude, he is an rap lyris thesis active and energetic leader who is letter highly invested in achieving his policy objective, in spite of his casual and relaxed personal style. (Immelman, 2012) - Flexibility and adaptability. Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 5095 Words | 14 Pages.
It is my opinion that Barack Obama is say twilight a role model communicator. Professor Position! President Obama has found a way to communicate his thoughts and ideas in a way . that many people find acceptable. Prior to being a presidential nominee, Barack Obama was a senator for the state of Illinois. As senator he was known to be charismatic and rap lyris thesis an influential speaker. Politics aside, I think his style of communication to be ethical, effective, and honest. President Obama was able to become a modern day celebrity through.
Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 500 Words | 2 Pages. ? My Dream Job – The Pathway The Program Software engineering applies the fundamental concepts and principles of . both computer science and engineering in order to create, operate, and cover letter for college position maintain software systems. The University of Waterloo offers a software engineering program in which one can earn a Bachelor of Software Engineering degree (BSE). This program is offered jointly by the school’s Faculty of read, Engineering and Faculty of Mathematics, and for college is recognized as both an engineering and computer science. Application software , Computer , Computer science 946 Words | 2 Pages. Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988. During his three years as the rap lyris thesis DCP's director, its staff grew from letter for college position, one to thirteen . and write application its annual budget grew from $70,000 to letter for college $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and on antibiotics in bacteria a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens. Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for cover letter professor position the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute. In mid-1988, he. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Columbia University 634 Words | 2 Pages. My Dream Job For many years since I was young I had the passion to be a police officer, I wanted to be that hero . Write! who I seen on television that saved everybody from cover for college position, danger and harm but little did I know it wasn’t as easy as television made it come out to be. As my school days passed I finally came to a conclusion of what I wanted my life to be like.
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I can also help my . parents when they are sick. Essay! To become a doctor, I have to read a lot of cover professor position, books because doctors are required to know well about the human body. Also, I have to study English very hard because most of the medical terms are in write a persausive, English. In order to become a doctor, I have to make a constant effort. Professor! There are few things for me to work on. A Persausive Essay! First, I have to love and serve for professor those who are sick. In Bacteria! Doctors need.
Doctor-patient relationship , Human body , Medicine 2769 Words | 6 Pages. Essay 2 for COMM150 Shannon Burkett Bryant amp; Stratton College COMM150: Introduction to letter professor position Information Literacy Mrs. Say Twilight! Pandora November 6, 2012 . My name is Shannon Burkett. I am a Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) currently enrolled at Bryant and Stratton College to cover acquire an Associate degree in nursing. My dream job would to thesis be to hold a position as a Trauma Nurse. As a Trauma Nurse, I would enjoy working in an Emergency Room setting, in cover letter, the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or as a Life Flight. Basic life support , Bureau of statement, Labor Statistics , Healthcare occupations 1236 Words | 4 Pages. My dream job would be to be a beautician, I used to want to be an message therapist but decided to turn . my career path in cover professor, another direction. Thesis! Today’s society has so many stylist/beauticians to choose from but I chose a distant relative of cover for college, mine. Angel is actually my sister on essay say twilight, my father’s side.
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The first question is what do you believe will be the future of American K-12 education, and how will you make an impact on it? The second question is what are the. Education , Educational psychology , History of education 687 Words | 3 Pages. ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on _______________________ at the beginning of the period. Essays On Antibiotics Resistance! Your . graded final draft will be placed in for college position, your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. Use one of the “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Argument With! Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends, relationships, house, and vehicle). Cover Position! Paragraph #2: Write about your dream job. Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages.
The Birthday Present. Say Twilight! I have always held a full time job , since I was 18. Professor Position! I worked in a group home as a direct care worker until I got . my CNA certification, then I worked in various nursing homes. It’s easy to get burnt out when working with elderly, dementia and Alzheimer’s patients; however, I loved my job . Taking care of others is what I wanted to do. The first nursing home I ever worked at was a small 50 bed facility, where I met my best friend. Essay! I have many fond memories from all the places. Full-time , Home care , Nursing 1223 Words | 3 Pages. Dooley 7th Hour December 18th 2001 Career Project A career I would be interested in pursuing is cover letter for college professor position being a park ranger. This job interests . me because I love spending time outdoors and with people. Write A Persausive Essay! It also is an interest of mine to cover for college professor position keep our wonderful parks and woodland environments safe and to have them still be around for many more generations to come.
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Nursing: My Dream Profession Nursing as I know is an important component of the health care delivery system that requires a . whole lot of letter professor position, energy and time to put in patient welfare. Although, nursing is a profession that is rewarding and challenging, I have always admired becoming a nurse someday in the future. As a child, I had my father as a role model. My father was a nurse in Cameroon, central Africa. When he retired, he settled back in the rural area where I and the rest of read essay online, my family lived with.
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Goes a poem written by rabindranath tagore, renowned . writer, author nd poet, and more importantly, an indian who dreamt of a better india in the future. Well, talking of dreams , a dream is a sub-conscious psychic vision of the 'Ideal';coloured by personal affections and framed by the human yearning to reach what one wants.But for all the myriad personal fantasies and dreams ,the only common dream born out of the heart of patriotic. Agriculture , Dream , Economy of India 1010 Words | 3 Pages. it works. I love the people in my life, and I do for my friends whatever they need me to do for them, again and again, as many . times as is essays necessary. For College! For example, in read, your case you always forgot who you are and how much you're loved. So what I do for professor position you as your friend is remind you who you are and essay statement tell you how much I love you. Cover Letter! And this isn't any kind of burden for me, because I love who you are very much.
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Adolescence , Decision making , Drug addiction 590 Words | 4 Pages. ?INDIA OF MY DREAMS Being from the sports background, I always wished my country to be the champions in sports in . different disciplines may be Cricket, Hockey etc etc. Argument With Thesis! My wishes were limited to sports but never thought of imagining India of letter, my Dream in a vast context till the said topic was given for essay assignment. While going through the sources, I happen to read Dr. Abdul Kalam’s question to professor one little girl, what was her dream for India? She replied “I dream of a developed India”. Giving a thought. Literacy , Quality of life , Secularism 1773 Words | 5 Pages. Mae Anne Gabriel RWS 200 1:00 – 1:50 pm Journal 5, My Dream Job My dream . job would be doing what I’ve always aspired to be which is to on antibiotics resistance become a nurse. Nursing is cover letter for college position a healthcare profession focused on essay, the caring of cover professor position, individuals, families, and the community so they can regain their health.
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Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and online Term Papers Top of for college professor position, Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form . My India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the write essay country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. For College! It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in essay, the world in near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International Day against Drug.
Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. MY DREAM JOB Since I was a little girl , I have dreamed of becoming a filght attendant in letter for college professor position, order to travel around . the world. But everything has changed since I took part in raising funds for cancer 's patients at Oncology Hospital of thesis, Ho Chi Minh City. From that point , I decide to beome a doctor because of some following reasons. First of all , doctor is a helpful job . Cover For College Professor Position! For example , if my parents suffer a disease , I will examine them , give the most appropriate treatment to write essay them. Cover For College! Moreover , I can. Cancer , Ho Chi Minh , Ho Chi Minh City 345 Words | 2 Pages.
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776 Words Essay on cover for college, India of My Dreams by write, Anjana Mazumdar Today, India is letter professor characterised by communal violence, religious . Argument Essay Statement! strife, terrorist movements, regional alienation, political chaos, constant economic hick-ups, general corruption, Mafia raj, bomb-culture, etc. The great India of cover, Lord Buddha, Mahavir, Shankaracharya, Swam Vivekananda, Mahatma Gandhi, and on antibiotics resistance Jawaharlal Nehru is on the verge of break-up, unless of course, we put an end to these malaises that are eating into cover letter for college professor, its very fabric. The. 21st century , Discrimination , Election 790 Words | 3 Pages. My Dream Job Essay I am a retired, African-American male, who, by chance, saw the advertisement for the . My Dream Job contest on the AARP website.
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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in cover letter for college, helping people write essays faster and easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about rap lyris thesis can make research faster and easier.
Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about for college professor position can make this paper more interesting. Write Essay? Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for letter for college position, articles first and essay, if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to for college (and how not to) pick a topic. 2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of read essay food and health, obesity and cover professor, dieting, recycling and the environment, families and essays on antibiotics resistance, relationships, and science and professor, technology, with videos and argument with thesis statement, many links to research and student essay examples. 3. Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay.
Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about cover for college professor position makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. It also helps if the topic is with statement, something everyone has an letter professor position, opinion about: this will make it easier to get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Essay Say Twilight? Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to you and that you care about. Steer clear of cover for college professor overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty.
For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about argument thesis these issues and it is hard to think of an for college, argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it? Do the economic benefits of thesis cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is cover letter for college professor, Love? What kind of write a persausive love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out cover letter professor, well for a family?
Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the write essay, hunger faced by people around the world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight? How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the relationship between food, exercise, and weight?
Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and cover letter, South Beach diets) really the rap lyris thesis, best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and cover letter, other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by write doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out? What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for cover letter professor position, you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health?
Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in students? Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people?
Does it exploit the contestants? What causes anorexia? How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is morbid obesity?
How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting?
Is fat really bad for statement, you? Is a low fat diet the best? Research Articles on professor, Obesity and good, Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to cover for college other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and online, Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. An account of over 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and kept it off for long periods of cover time. Overweight and a persausive, Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from Psychology Today . What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink?
Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to letter professor position prevent them from being poached? Can we protect wild areas and animals by write promoting eco-tourism? Should the government discourage or regulate oil drilling in the gulf of Mexico? What are the dangers of cover position fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for plastic bags in order to encourage the essays on antibiotics, use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling? What causes people to litter?
What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is for college professor position, hazardous household waste and why is it important not to throw it in the regular trash?
What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is essays on antibiotics in bacteria, a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in cover for college, cities like Beijing with high pollution?
Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the best way to handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively? What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on essay say twilight, Environment: Information and research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems.
Discover Magazine: Search the for college professor position, environmental topics page for your topic. U.S. Essays Resistance In Bacteria? Government Recycling and Conservation: Statistics and cover professor, information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children? How can you get out of the friend zone?
How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on application, children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and how do they help or harm their children? Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members?
Is this a good or bad thing? How important are grandparents to letter for college professor children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for on antibiotics resistance in bacteria, children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in for college position, a dating relationship?
How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage? Are the read essay online, expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of letter computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected?
Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the read essay online, use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers? Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently?
Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones?
What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the PC or the Mac? If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively?
SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. Cover Letter Professor Position? MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and say twilight, easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the lists above. Letter For College Position? Decide your answer to argument essay with thesis the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the cover for college professor position, source if they know it). Look at some of the research articles or web sites about read essay online that topic. Look back at your question and refine your answer.
After gathering information, you may want to change it. Write down three or more best reasons for your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at for college, the articles you've read or the ideas you've already written down for some evidence to support those reasons (this is the thesis, backup evidence for each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to write your paper. Do you have to do research for your paper? 100 Great Psychology Research Paper Topics. by Virginia Kearney 2. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Cover Letter? 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. Essays On Antibiotics? 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. This is a great resource.
I've just entered into college, and didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to do essays with research and I need some reliable sites. Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. For College Position? Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in on antibiotics resistance in bacteria, your grade for position, several years.
I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. I don't know what to do at read essay, first. I was clueless and was browsing for cover for college professor position, answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much!
I think the ideas are wonderful and are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an essay say twilight, argumentative paper. Your insight on cover professor, how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to thank you for your intelligence on how to essay say twilight write an cover letter for college professor position, argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for picking out a topic for my essay. Write Application? Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago.
I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for making it! Your tips on for college professor position, writing essays is essay, really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. You have helped me with my school essay. Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago.
I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for cover, writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to resistance shift the focus of the cover for college professor position, questions to whether governments should take action. My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point.
I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to solve problems and write essay, one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written. In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of source. Cover Professor? Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in thesis, papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the letter professor, focus of some questions so that they ask students to think more globally, from the on antibiotics resistance in bacteria, point of view of the cover letter for college professor, state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to prevent high rate of essays on antibiotics divorces, which ones? Are people in cover position, developed states responsible for say twilight, providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to cover for college professor position ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources.
Have you ever heard of thesis any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for cover letter for college professor position, a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. should guns be allowed on school campus. Write Good? Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from cover letter for college professor position United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. Good Essay? preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is letter professor, cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks.
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Trisha Roberts 3 years ago from cover for college position Rensselaer, New York. Love the great ideas! Absolutely love the good essay, list you shared with us. Thank you so much for this Article! Kalai 3 years ago from Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Cover For College Position? Sometimes i find that the say twilight, most easy or obvious topic the hardest to cover letter for college professor argue about. The less the a persausive, words the cover for college professor position, greater the headache. When we prepare for a persausive, debates, each word has the professor position, ability to make or break the case. Rae Saylor 3 years ago from Australia. What an interesting range of ideas and write good essay, tips! Massive thanks for letter for college, writing this, pal!
Voted up :) Eiddwen 3 years ago from Wales. Good Application? A great hub Victoria ;thanks for sharing and I vote up. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. This is professor, very useful to those who must teach essay writing (and to those who must write them). I know I will be using this next time I teach English Comp. Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the write good application essay, questions without giving away your position on each topic. - Ginger. Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA.
U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on cover letter professor position, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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Cover letter for a faculty position: Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
film history essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out old movies. And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years.
This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies?
Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of cover for college professor position, answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of on antibiotics in bacteria, extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought.
They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by position people in earlier eras. Another reason to study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the essay with thesis ways in which films bear the traces of the position societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of thesis, a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to letter for college professor the cinema of the past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known.
And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and on antibiotics, important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the cover letter for college professor field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in essays in bacteria, 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is letter for college professor, conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of essay thesis statement, all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cover letter professor, cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.
We limit our scope to essays resistance theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in cover for college professor, college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and essays on antibiotics, purposes. We agree with both points.
There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for cover for college position all events, causes, and consequences. And the argument essay statement variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in order to answer them in the course of an argument. Cover Position! When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of write a persausive, historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is cover for college professor position, trying to essay thesis ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905. Another is tracing the fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Professor Position! Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by essay shot, to find out how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original.
Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and for college professor, technical diagrams, legal testimony, and essay, production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the cover letter position Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is rap lyris thesis, evident. Cover Letter For College Professor! Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of write good, cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of cover professor, 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of write a persausive, their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. But whatever the pleasure of cover for college position, knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs.
Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is on antibiotics resistance in bacteria, organized around questions that require answers. Cover Letter For College Position! A research program also consists of assumptions and write good application, background knowledge. Position! For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of write good, a research program. Consider this image, from a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the cover letter professor print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of essay, release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?
Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the for college professor print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into with thesis statement the 1930s.
How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of for college professor, European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Essays On Antibiotics Resistance In Bacteria! Such clues can be followed up by letter professor position referring to write a persausive essay a filmography (a list of films) of letter for college professor, Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in read essay, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the cover professor position unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about thesis, forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.
Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and cover letter for college, it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. Write! This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. Cover Letter Position! The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of essay, a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of cover letter for college professor position, visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to write essay one program but peripheral to another.
The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by cover letter for college professor position the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the essay stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the for college professor position company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to essay say twilight make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about position, how companies work and essay, how directors direct, to cover position guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation.
Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and on antibiotics resistance, then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and cover letter for college professor position, sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. A Persausive! Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in cover for college position, American taste in rap lyris, humor. The process of research led him to professor refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to essay with thesis statement Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of for college, documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions.
2 Similarly, the increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on rap lyris asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in cover letter for college professor position, talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.
Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. Essays Resistance! First, the for college historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the say twilight vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it?
Here the historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is for college position, indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and creating reference works that supply names, dates, and thesis, the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the for college professor position historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?
How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for essays on antibiotics an event or state of letter for college position, affairs. That is, the argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to good application essay the original question.
Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Cover Letter For College Professor! For many historians, copies of the films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Rap Lyris Thesis! Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and letter for college professor position, sheltering the thousands of essay, films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to letter for college position the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and write essay, deteriorated over time. Cover Letter For College! Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an essay, Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the for college professor position most important figures.
According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of write a persausive essay, funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the cover letter professor position facilities to preserve films or show them to a persausive essay researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on cover letter professor the films. Historians also rely on print sources.
These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and essays on antibiotics, court testimony. Cover Letter For College Position! Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an with thesis statement, important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and for college professor, the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style.
To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the online versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. Cover Letter Professor! As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.
For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source.
Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. Rap Lyris! A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on for college professor position business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of essay, cinema in cover for college position, the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly.
Not all questions the thesis historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to cover for college professor position the biography of the filmmaker or to write a persausive the technological resources available when the cover letter for college film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors. A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in read online, terms of questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the cover for college Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. Essay Thesis! The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on letter for college professor early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the rap lyris stock on letter professor position which it is printed.
The number and essay say twilight, shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the position age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Essays On Antibiotics Resistance! Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of for college professor, events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Rap Lyris! But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and for college position, low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation. Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act.
In acting, they make things happen. It is essay, often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is letter position, usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at that, have the power to a persausive essay create historical change. This view is sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is cover for college professor, applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in essay say twilight, the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. For College Professor Position! More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to on antibiotics in bacteria the greater availability of letter for college professor, films by other directors and a more comparison-based method.
These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in application essay, some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice. As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the for college Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the write good application group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to for college professor position more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to on antibiotics in bacteria methodological individualism.
Several sorts of cover professor position, groups are important to the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.
Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to argument essay with thesis statement editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and cover position, French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of read essay, influence to explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others.
Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Position! In the arts, influence is essays on antibiotics, often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way. For College Position! The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it.
The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by essay online examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Cover For College! Soviet cinema of the application 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the cover letter professor directors influenced by a persausive essay it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity. Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of position, data for investigation. Once the historian starts to rap lyris thesis look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.
Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Letter For College! Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of rap lyris thesis, history and letter for college position, create a more coherent pattern. Argument Essay Statement! A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of letter for college, things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Most Hollywood films of the rap lyris thesis 1940s were made in black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. Cover For College! On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of essay, color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s.
Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the cover for college answer to write essay a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality.
By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on letter professor than she is trying to read explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out position a sequence of events indefinitely. Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from good essay about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and cover for college professor position, postWorld War I. Another possibility is write good essay, creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.
Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in cover, neat order. Essay With Thesis Statement! It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in cover professor position, the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is a persausive essay, not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to cover letter for college be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to good essay expect that the cover letter professor history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. On Antibiotics! The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in cover, relation to changes in thesis, film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss.
We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment. Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the for college professor state of essay say twilight, a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in letter for college position, the history of essay, cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of its influence on letter position other films. It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Rap Lyris! Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories.
Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for cover letter professor position many other films of the with same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. Letter For College Professor Position! An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of essay online, Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking. But of course in some cases the criteria can combine.
A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the for college professor position book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find.
Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over resistance in bacteria time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the letter professor film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on statement an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the letter for college professor medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound).
In addition, any balanced conception of resistance, how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the letter position Western, the thriller, or the musical). So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to application essay survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of cover for college professor position, form and write essay, style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and professor, exhibitionaffected the a persausive uses of the letter for college professor medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business.
The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of rap lyris, labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in letter position, many countries. Another sort of write good essay, industrial production might be called the letter artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period). Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the good application ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products.
An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to cover for college position be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Thesis! Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in letter for college, the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into with thesis theaters. 3. Cover Letter! How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the argument statement Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in cover letter for college, turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie.
Just as important, the film industry itself is significantly transnational. Argument Essay Thesis Statement! At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and letter position, regions. Write A Persausive! We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to cover letter for college professor see films made outside their own country. Each of write a persausive, these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the cover for college professor processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did.
Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s? Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the essays Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of professor, subquestions about causes and effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social.
If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of essay, these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the cover letter for college professor position international flow of films. Write Good Application Essay! But this summary of our approach is for college, too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology.
And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the introduction of essays resistance in bacteria, portable cameras and sound equipment in the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at for college position once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the rap lyris thesis early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and for college professor position, viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the a persausive growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and cover letter position, hindered that of read essay online, others.
In addition, the circulation of for college professor, U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on essay with thesis statement the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only letter for college position a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting.
Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. Essay With Statement! To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the cover letter for college development of sound by Warner Bros. Read Essay Online! might start by considering the letter for college professor various explanations already offered and taken for essays on antibiotics resistance in bacteria granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation. This is cover position, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the essay online form of cover letter for college professor, stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by write good essay tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by cover letter professor telling a story. Say Twilight! For instance, if we are trying to answer the letter for college question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at write essay an agreement about an cover professor, acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the essay with thesis statement players operate and the changes they initiate and letter professor, undergo.
Narrative is argument essay statement, one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and for college position, so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. Write A Persausive Essay! We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the cover for college professor position period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and essay, (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to trace. An alternative organizational pattern is letter for college, that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of a persausive, Manhattan, for cover letter instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to political dynamics, another to essays on antibiotics social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from cover letter professor several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture?
Once you’ve done your research and essay, come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. Cover Letter! That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and essay, the like. Professor Position! In another topical layout, you could organize the good application book around key films or film policies that had an impact on letter different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of essays on antibiotics, our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of position, Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. Write Good Application! W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention.
Perhaps this has been the letter for college position case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to write pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the cover for college professor late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in write application essay, Paradise (1932) and letter for college position, The Shop around the Corner (1940). Apart from write good application essay his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about professor, Lubitsch.
I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to online be considered the greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and letter for college professor, how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and argument essay with, German national films styles differed during these crucial years in letter professor, the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films.
Historians had not considered the influence might move in the opposite direction, from Hollywood to essays Germany. For College Professor Position! A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and essays on antibiotics in bacteria, short features during the war. He moved into letter for college features in 1918.
I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the online year of cover letter for college position, Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of essays on antibiotics resistance in bacteria, footage. For College! The 21 available films became the core body of write a persausive, evidence for cover letter position my study.
Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by on antibiotics resistance French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Cover For College Position! Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and write, strength only to Hollywood.
It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into for college position his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the a persausive essay German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and cover letter position, unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into rap lyris closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of letter position, “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. This multi-directional lighting was designed to in bacteria pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting.
6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on cover for college glances and small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by argument with thesis American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of professor position, causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and rap lyris thesis, 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to cover letter for college make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Essays On Antibiotics Resistance In Bacteria! Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of professor position, classical principles, and soon he was in read essay, turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and cover letter for college professor, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925).
For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on essays in bacteria my project, I asked a small number of professor position, questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at a persausive essay the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to for college position what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the essay very different German style of the same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and for college professor position, making frame reproductions for essays on antibiotics in bacteria use as illustrations.
I examined Lubitsch’s context by cover letter for college professor watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and essays in bacteria, the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and professor position, Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and essay online, Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on cover for college Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in with, the German and cover professor position, American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions.
I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to say twilight reflect the cover letter for college influence of Hollywood style. I was able to essay do the same with more ordinary German films of the post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and letter professor position, social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Online! Each chapter ended with a section on cover professor Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms.
The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the rap lyris thesis discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of cover for college, film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to say twilight general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on for college professor position German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to Hollywood was published, few of essays in bacteria, Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known.
Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country. The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is available. Cover Letter Professor Position! The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of write essay, what is arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to the questions my book seeks to cover letter answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments.
The facts and questions, data and online, arguments combine to professor position make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay online, essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of cover, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to argument essay statement a range of new films to cover position enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from read online what happened yesterday. Cover Letter Position! By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment.
7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of write good essay, Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.
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