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A Writing Curriculum for Jr. High and High School. Do you have a child who loves to write? Do you have a child who hates to sweatshop warriors term paper write? Either way, you need to read our story. Reviewing the Beyond the Book Report program by Analytical Grammar has been both difficult and remarkable . The past few weeks have been among the most emotionally charged of our home school years. Since my childhood, I#8217;ve loved writing. Hearing a teacher assign an essay or report was the highlight of my day. My daughter, on the other hand, loves to read but I recently learned that writing is her nemesis. She#8217;s scared of it.
Simply telling her that she needs to write anything other than a friendly letter makes her want to hide in her room, under her bed, with the door locked. When I first reviewed the writing Analytical Grammar site, I watched every video, falling more and more in sweatshop warriors term paper, love with everything they offered. Writing? I didn#8217;t know which item would be assigned to me for review, but I knew whatever arrived in my mailbox would make me happy. Beyond the Book Report is a writing program geared towards students in sweatshop warriors term, 6th-8th grades and global is fake essay, expandable into high school. Since my daughter is entering 7th grade, this was the perfect time for us to work through a structured writing curriculum. The Beyond the Book Report package arrived, and I immediately opened it and organized the teacher pages into page protectors.
BBR may be used with more than one child, so I put all of the seasons into a regular 3 ring binder with a pouch for sweatshop paper the DVDs. We popped the DVD into the laptop and eagerly awaited the first lesson! Watching them was just as expected. Frederick Turner? The teachers and authors, Robin Finley and Erin Karl, were a delight to listen to. Straightforward and lacking fluff, I wanted to take this course! It was everything I hoped it would be and more! Then I looked at my daughter . She stared at the screen with tears welling in her eyes. I tried to be positive, #8220;What do you think? I think it#8217;s great!#8221; After explaining that we could review the lessons together and replay the lectures, she only became more frustrated. She didn#8217;t want to review the lectures; she wanted to find the escape hatch.
Even though there was a rocky beginning, she continued to be a good sport, read her book, took notes, and tried to understand the different terminologies. Some days were more difficult than others. But then things clicked , and sweatshop warriors paper, she liked it ! Activities designed to help students delve deeper into essay the literature, such as writing out questions for a crossword puzzle or a word search, were no longer scary; they were fun ! I gave her the option of only doing one of the paper activities for now, but she wanted to essay teaching do it all ! She now understands literary terms, knows how to use a rubric, has an appreciation for different genres, and is no longer afraid of writing . Because of our experience seeing the complete turnaround in sweatshop warriors term, our daughter, we plan to use the products from Analytical Grammar as a comprehensive Language Arts curriculum. What#8217;s the point of this story? One person loved writing, and the other didn#8217;t; but in the end, both came out smiling ! Now, let#8217;s get to the nuts and bolts!
Unless otherwise noted, the lectures are directed to the students. Several comments of #8220;you#8217;re older now#8221; and #8220;now that you#8217;re in essay, Jr. High#8221; are mentioned, encouraging students towards independent work and to take responsibility for paper learning. Modern China Essay Questions? The #8220;seasons#8221; build upon warriors paper one another, so if your child is in 6th, 7th, 8th, or 9th grade, the elementary suggested schedule begins with Season 1. If a student is beginning in 10th grade or above, it suggests going straight into Season 3. Within each season, the student begins by watching the warriors lecture. Everything is nicely laid out and easily navigated. Pages for note taking are printed and correspond with the lecture slides.
Season 1 covers different report types: It also covers several literary terms such as: Paraphrase vs Summary Point of View Protagonist and Antagonist Mood, Setting, Tone, and more. Even though my daughter felt intimidated in the beginning, it was exciting to frontier hear her explain the sweatshop protagonists, antagonists, conflict, and point-of-view of other stories we read and movies we watched. She also enjoyed creating her own puzzle and writing comprehensive reading questions. Season 2 is more difficult and covers poetry and drama. Both writing and research papers, in-depth literary analysis are included. As part of warriors, this season, Edgar Allan Poe#8217;s The Raven and Shakespeare#8217;s A Midsummer Night#8217;s Dream are used for study. When we began Season 2, my daughter initially reacted the same as she did when we started Season 1. Fortunately, it didn#8217;t take as long for what thesis based masters her to warm up to it, and she went on paper to enjoy the solving problems poetry study, explaining the different types of poetry we encounter on a daily basis. Limerick Sonnet Haiku Narrative Poem Drama and warriors paper, Stage Scene Alliteration Figurative speech and more. Essay Elementary? essays research papers thesis statements formulating an argument outlining public speaking preparing for the SAT essay and more. While my daughter isn#8217;t ready for the rigors of Season 3, I enjoyed a sneak peek and know that when it comes time for her or any of our other children to work through it, they#8217;ll be equipped, having a well-rounded education in sweatshop term paper, writing. Where will we go from here?
While I plan to use Beyond the Book Report during our upcoming school year, we#8217;ll shelve it until after we#8217;ve completed Analytical Grammar Season 1 and follow the 3-year-plan. Using their grammar curriculum isn#8217;t required to jackson frontier begin Beyond the sweatshop warriors term paper Book Report; there are notes available for those who haven#8217;t used Analytical Grammar, but I feel she#8217;ll have a stronger understanding afterwards. Even though my daughter struggled in is a thesis masters, the beginning, her current understanding of literary terms has increased. Paper? The improvements I see are real, and I look forward to seeing her have a strong grasp of grammar as well. Each season of problems quadratic, Beyond the Book Report is $24.95, or purchase all three in term, a bundle for higher modern studies china $69.95. Since Beyond the Book Report can be used with more than one child, it#8217;s an economical option for families with many students. For more information on Analytical Grammar#8217;s Beyond the warriors Book Report: Like Analytical Grammar#8217;s page on Facebook. Is A Masters? Follow Analytical Grammar on Twitter. Sweatshop Term Paper? Want to know how to global use essential oils and herbs in your home? In this guide, I share my top 10 favorites.
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Slope Of The Yield Curve Finance Essay. For a person who values his money and wishes to invest it, he must consider the type of sweatshop warriors term, security he will invest in, the company that issued the security, the time of his investment and problems with equations, more importantly, the risk that comes with every security traded in the market. Warriors Term Paper! Investment or securities with high returns can be attractive but every investor should be careful with the risk that comes along with it. As much as everyone wants a high return for their investment, this would mean that investors have to assume higher risks as well. Having sufficient information and knowledge on what is a based, the type of security an investor seeks to invest in and the market where the security belongs is a great advantage. Without sufficient information and knowledge on the risks incorporated with the security or investment, investors would be incurring losses more than they should. This is the warriors term reason why factors affecting risks in an investment and the premium investors get for assuming additional risk, deserve attention and research.
In relation to what the researchers quoted above, this study will focus on the determinants of credit spread changes in writing research papers the Philippine government bond market mainly the U.S. Dollar-denominated Republic of the Philippines bonds issued in warriors term the years 2005-2011. The credit spread reflects the premium for solving with quadratic equations default risk over paper an otherwise riskless security (Batten, et al., 2006). Solving With Equations! The researchers want to determine if macroeconomic variables, such as stock market index, foreign exchange rate, bond yield and slope of the yield curve have strong explanatory power in credit spread changes. According to a report of the Asian Development Bank, the Philippine bond market grew 12.4% to P3.7 trillion as of end-June 2012 the positive outlook for the country fueled buying and issuance of fixed-income instruments. Mr. Amando Tetangco, Jr., the Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, said that in term 2009, issuances of domestic government securities continue to be the primary source of elementary teaching, funding with a ratio of more than two-thirds of the total borrowing mix. Warriors! Philippine government securities are mainly made up of Treasury bills and Treasury bonds, which are also known as Fixed-rate Treasury Notes (FXTNs) (ADB, 2012).
There are also Retail Treasury bonds (RTBs) that are intended to make government securities available to retail investors as well as create savings consciousness. The Philippine government does not only issue domestic government securities, but also foreign-denominated government securities which are the thesis based Republic of the Philippines (ROP) bonds. This kind of bonds that pays out semi-annual coupons are usually USD- and warriors term, EUR-denominated and are free from final withholding tax on what is a thesis based masters, interest income. These USD-denominated ROPs will be the subject or highlight of this research. According to Investing in Bonds.com (2009),
The U.S. Treasury securities market is the largest and warriors term paper, most liquid market in the world. There is currently $7.89 trillion in outstanding marketable Treasury debt. The U.S. Treasury issues three types of jackson thesis, securities: bills, which have a maturity of less than 1 year; notes, which have a maturity of between one and warriors term, 10 years; and bonds, which have a maturity of greater than 10 years. The US Government, particularly, the U.S. Department of Treasury issues U.S. Essay! Treasury Notes or Bonds (T-Notes or T-Bonds) which are also known as U.S.
Treasuries, U.S. Treasury Bills (T-Bills), U.S. Sweatshop Term Paper! Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) and with, lastly, U.S. Treasury STRIPS like U.S. Treasury Zero Coupon Bonds (Zeros). U.S. Treasury Notes and Bonds possess the sweatshop same characteristics except for their tenor because T-Notes maturities are 2, 5 and 10 years while T-Bonds mature in global more than 10 years but less than 30 years.
Coupons for both securities are paid out semi-annually. Most of the time, U.S. Treasuries are used as benchmark for many markets because it is believed to be free of default risk. The health of the U.S. Treasury Market is being affected by the crisis in Europe. As the crisis goes worse, the U.S. bond market will continue to underperform. According to Wastler (2012), if people are considering U.S. Treasury bonds for investment, they now have to paper think twice. Aside from the movement of interest rates, the increasing size of debt of the US Government places a question on their ability to pay their outstanding obligations. Pricing of U.S. Treasuries is modern studies china essay questions similar to the valuation of ROP Bonds although the former uses a different market convention in terms of day-counting as well as secondary market price quotation (Wee Sit, 2012).
As a market convention, yields of ROP bonds are priced and benchmarked against that of U.S. Treasuries. Credit spread is defined as measured by the difference between a corporate and sweatshop warriors, a government bond yield of the same maturity (Lepone Wong, 2009), which is solving equations normally expressed in basis points. In our case, the study on sweatshop warriors paper, credit spread will involve U.S. With Quadratic! Treasury bonds as the benchmark and the Republic of the Philippines (ROP) bonds, which are U.S. dollar-denominated bonds, as the risky asset. This difference reflects the market's assessment of default risk which shows the warriors paper relative riskiness of different debt categories through the differences of the spreads among borrowers (Boss Scheicher, 2002).
Credit spread movements may reveal shifts in the supply of jackson thesis quotes, funds provided by financial intermediaries; such that a drop in the supply of credit causes the cost of debt finance to increase, thereby widening credit spreads which may subsequently cut spending and production (Gilchrist Zakrajsek, 2011). Credit spreads are also used to paper assess the probability of a company's default, determine the financial market's general function, preserve financial stability, and evaluate the consequences of monetary policy measures through the interaction between corporate bonds, government bonds, and money markets (Musio, 2006). With this information at hand, there is a need to solving problems quadratic study the determinants of credit spread changes. 1. 2 A Statement of the Problem. What are the determinants of sweatshop, credit spread changes in ROP bonds issued in the years 2005 - 2011? 1.3 Objectives of the Study. The main objective of the study is to determine the effects of the changes in the bond yield, slope of the yield curve, returns on the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), and studies china, foreign exchange rate on credit spread changes of ROP bonds for sweatshop warriors term the periods 2005-2011.
It aims to determine whether default risk variables have significant effects on the changes in credit spread. Also, this study aims to determine whether liquidity variables have significant effects on the changes in credit spread. It intends to make investors aware of the turner quotes factors that they have to warriors term consider in measuring the risk and return of the security they buy so they can take advantage of the movements of the market. Ho: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in research papers the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield less the changes in the 2-US treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield less the changes in the 2-year US treasury bond yield have a significant effect on sweatshop paper, credit spread. Ho: The changes in the squared value of the 10-year U.S. Warming Is Fake! treasury bond yield have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the squared value of the sweatshop 10-year U.S. What Is A! treasury bond yield have a significant effect on credit spread.
Ho: The changes in the lagged returns of the PSEi have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the lagged returns of the sweatshop warriors PSEi have a significant effect on credit spread. Ho: The changes in modern studies china essay questions the USD/PHP exchange rate have no significant effect on credit spread. Ha: The changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate have a significant effect on credit spread. 1.5 Significance of the warriors Study. This study will add literature to the scarce amount of studies about credit spreads. It will give additional research information for the use of the academe. Essay! Researchers will have supplementary material for reference on the pursuit of a study on the same subject. Foreign researchers who wish to conduct a study of their own country's securities benchmarked against another country's securities or with the U.S. as well can use our research as another guide and related literature on the subject, amongst the others.
Local and foreign investors will be able to see the importance of credit spreads in the bonds that they invest to and they will be able to assess the risks incorporated with each bond so they can measure and evaluate it based on their own scale of risk tolerance or appetite. Studying credit spreads which reflects the premium for default risk over an otherwise riskless security will also inform investors of the additional return they get in exchange of assuming additional risk. It will help them assess the issuer of the security whether they give satisfactory and justified returns to their investors. The Philippine government will assess the effects of different factors to the credit spread of ROP bonds benchmarked against U.S. Warriors Term! Treasuries so they can possibly regulate them more and lessen the credit spread in the bonds they issue. They can adjust the credit spreads through the factors that significantly affect it, making them pay less premium to their creditors. 1. 6 Scope and Limitations. The study will focus on the determinants of credit spread changes of U.S. Dollar- denominated ROP Bonds for the years 2005-2011.
The variables that will be used in the study are the changes in based the bond yield, changes in the squared value of the bond yield and changes in the slope of the yield curve which are the variables that capture default risk. Also included are changes in the lagged of PSEi returns and changes in the exchange rate as market variables. Limitations of the study, on the other hand, are the researchers' lack of direct access to Bloomberg or any database that provides the data necessary to conduct the sweatshop warriors study. Another limitation for this study is the absence of a developed options and futures market in the Philippines. Due to this limitation, variables regarding derivatives are removed from the data. Review of Related Literature.
This chapter shall present the variables used through the discussion of different journals of past studies related to the main topic of this research. The chapter will also present the gap between the elementary studies done in sweatshop warriors term the past and the study to solving problems with quadratic equations be done by the researchers. 2.1. Description of Each Variable Used. Credit spread, as defined by Lepone and Wong (2009) is the difference of two bond yields, corporate and government, with the same tenor. In their study, they found out that the movements of the credit spread in past observations happen before any notable movements in the stock markets and the economy occurs. This is warriors paper supported by Gilchrist and Zakrajsek in their study done in frederick thesis quotes 2010. They defined credit spread as the difference of the yields of diverse debt instruments of private entities and the securities issued by the government. A It is a critical measure for the default risk and other sorts of warriors paper, financial problems in thesis the financial system.
Credit spread is an effective instrument to foresee future growth in the economy throughout different economic indicators (Gilchrist and Zakrajsek, 2010). Credit spread changes also suggest movements in the amount of lending provided by financial institutions. This, in turn, adds more emphasis on term paper, the importance of credit spread changes in forecasting economic movements in the future. One of the studies done show that a decrease in the balance sheet of financial institutions and other financial intermediaries create a lower supply of loans. On the modern essay other hand, a decrease in term the balance sheet would lead to an increase in credit spread. With this, the impact of an increase in credit spread movement show a possible decrease in the level of spending and production, thus, a weaker economy (Gilchrist and jackson turner thesis, Zakrajsek, 2010).A A A. 2.1.2. Changes in the 10-year Government Bond Yield. According to term the study of Lepone and Wong (2009), the higher studies china essay 10-year government bond yield is sweatshop warriors term paper used as a proxy for quadratic the spot rate. The spot rate is an important variable in the structural models of warriors term, default proposed by Black and Scholes (1973) and Merton (1974). The result of their study states that changes in the spot rate has a negative relationship to credit spreads and that it is an important variable in determining credit spreads which is also true in the study of Yap and Gannon (2007).
Longstaff and Schwartz (1992) argue that spreads and the risk-free rate should exhibit a negative relationship because an increase in the risk-free rate of the bond also increases that risk-neutral drift of the process that describes firm value and thus reduces the probability of global warming is fake, default. Molano (2003), looked at the credit spreads of emerging markets and found that they are sensitive to the monetary of U.S. It is believed that U.S. Warriors Term! treasury yields are highly correlated with the yields of emerging markets when interest rates are increasing. Higher China Essay! Yap and Gannon (2007) illustrated in their study that Malaysian bonds have varying degrees of cointegration with U.S. risk-free rate of longer to maturity. The changes in warriors the squared value of the 10-year government bond is included in the study of warming is fake, Lepone and Wong (2009), to capture the non-linear effects of the term structure. The term structure of interest rates is the relationship between the yields of the securities and their time to maturity. The term structure can be taken in a form of a graph called the yield curve. This yield curve normally has an increasing slope and warriors, curves as the time to maturity increases.
This curvature is the higher modern china questions one that should be taken into account. This variable is statistically significant; however, in the study of Batten, Fetherson, and warriors term paper, Hoontrakul (2006), the emerged coefficient is small and quadratic equations, generally not economically significant. 2.1.3. Changes in the Slope of the Yield Curve. Lepone and Wong (2009), in their study, considered the slope of the sweatshop warriors yield curve as an important determinant of credit spreads. Frederick Jackson Frontier Thesis Quotes! They defined the slope as the difference between the warriors yield of the ten year government bond yield and the three year government bond yield. By subtracting these two bond yields, the variable gives a broad view of the masters country's economic conditions (Lepone and Wong, 2009). A negative relationship is expected to from the changes in the slope of the yield curve to the changes in credit spreads. As stated in the research done by Miloudi and Moraux (2009), the term paper slope of the yield curve may be interpreted as the signal of the anticipated level of the future short rates.
The yield curve may also be the indication of how well or how bad the economy is performing. A positive change in the slope of the global is fake essay yield curve would mean a negative change on the credit spread and a negative change in the slope of the yield curve would mean an increase in the credit spread (Miloudi and Moraux (2009). Avramov, Jostova, and Philipov (2007) also said that the increase of the slope decreases the credit spreads because the positive change in the slope of the yield curve would mean an increase in the spot rates. Also, an increase in the slope would mean that the economy is improving. In contrast to this, they also said that an increase in the changes in the slope would mean an increase in future interest rates, lowering the valuation of term, a company, thus increasing the credit spreads (Avramov, Jostova, and Philipov, 2007). 2.1.4. Changes in the Lagged Returns on the PSEi.
2.1.5. Changes in studies china essay the USD/PHP Exchange Rate. Yap and Gannon (2007) considers foreign exchange variables as an important factor as steep currency appreciations in which the debt is denominated (most of the time in US dollar), may directly impact a country's indebtedness immediately. Depreciation of the domestic currency may also cause a slump in sweatshop paper the export revenues of the country which may further lessen its ability to service its debt. In the investment decision of foreign currency bonds, the most important factor to be considered is the foreign exchange risk since an appreciation of the home currency may reduce the forecasted profit. Modern Studies Questions! The study used the daily rate of return of the Japanese Yen and the British Pound as proxies of the foreign exchange rate given their strong trade relationship with Malaysia. The result of the study has shown that changes in term paper Japanese Yen were more influential than the changes in British Pound for the case of US dollar-denominated Malaysian bonds. In the study of china, Batten et al. (2006), the exchange rate variable was significant only for spreads on Philippine bonds since the bonds issued by the country were not of the same credit class as other Asian issues. The variable proxies macroeconomic uncertainty thus a depreciation of the local currency (appreciation of the US dollar) is expected to be associated with an increase in sweatshop warriors term paper credit spreads. It was found that the exchange rate is negatively related to the changes in the local stock market index and positively related to changes in the credit spread.
This implies that an increase in the exchange rate or a depreciation of the peso is associated with an increase in the credit spread and a decline in the stock index.A A A A A A A. As shown in the literature map, our study will focus on the Bond market, both the American and the Philippine Bond Market. China Questions! We will be studying the paper determinants of Credit Spread Changes in the Philippine setting. Instead of getting the difference in frederick jackson frontier thesis the yield of a corporate bond and a government bond, we will use government bond from the United States and a government bond with the same tenor from the Philippine bond market. For the study, the sweatshop warriors dependent variable would be the Changes in the Credit Spread and the independent variables will be the changes in the 10-year US Government bond yield, changes in the slope of the yield curve, changes in the squared value of the 10-year US Government bond yield, changes in the lagged returns of the PSEi, and solving quadratic, the changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate. All of sweatshop warriors term paper, these independent variable were used in past studies and with this, the same variables shall be applied in the Philippine setting. One of the what is a primary gap found by the researchers is that there are no, if not a few, studies existing on credit spreads in the Philippine bond market. Studies found are set in other bond markets from warriors other countries. And so for this study, the determinants on turner, credit spread to be analyzed will be from the Philippine bond market. The journal articles on the study of credit spreads used the corporate bonds' credit spread as a variable for their study.
Unfortunately in the Philippine setting, there is a scarce source of data on corporate bonds. Knowing this information, the researchers shall instead use the credit spread of the government bonds, specifically USD Denominated ROP Bonds, for the study. Previous studies on the determinants of credit spread changes used data in sweatshop warriors paper a weekly basis. Teaching! For this research, daily data basis shall be applied for the variables instead of the weekly basis in order to sweatshop term paper avoid the problems in stationarity when regression is applied to the study. This chapter will discuss the theory applicable to the study, the concepts included in the study, and the model the researchers will use in assessing the effects of the independent variables to the dependent variable. This chapter will also examine the possible relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variable. The main theory that will be discussed in the study is the risk and return theory. This states that the higher the risk of an global warming is fake investment, the higher the return the sweatshop warriors investors should receive. Credit spread is the difference between a corporate and a government bond yield of the same maturity (Lepone Wong, 2009). This spread measures the credit risk and what is a based masters, probability of default of the corporate bond.
The higher the credit spread between the bonds and the benchmark government bonds, the higher the risk of the bond to default, thus, a higher return should be given to the investor. Credit spread is the sweatshop yield spread or difference in yield between different securities which stems from the essay elementary teaching different credit quality of sweatshop warriors term paper, securities (Wrobel, n.d.). The credit spread of a security is often quoted in relation to a yield of essay teaching, a risk-free benchmark security. One factor that affects the credit spread is the probability of default of the security; the higher the spread of the security, the higher the default risk. Other factors affecting credit spreads are the costs related to the use of credit products, the adjustment for the bond's lifetime, the liquidity of the security, and the downgrade risk. Credit spread can be an indicator of the economy. When a credit spread is wide between the risky security and the risk-free security, this implies that the market is adding more default risk which indicates a slow-down in the economy. On the other hand, when the credit spread is narrow between the risky security and the risk-free security, there will be less default risk on the risky security, therefore, lowering its credit spread which implies that the economy is growing. The bond yield is the rate of sweatshop warriors paper, return the investor gets in holding the bond. There are different types of bond yield which are the coupon rate, the current yield, the yield to maturity, and the yield to call. The coupon rate is the rate the warming is fake essay issuer of the security will need to sweatshop paper pay interest payments periodically.
The current yield is the rate of return the investors will expect in holding the security in a year. The yield to maturity is the total return that the investors will get in holding the bond until maturity date. Lastly, the yield to call, only applicable in a callable bond, is the interest rate the bond holder gets in holding the writing security until the call date. The type of yield that will be used in the study is the yield to sweatshop paper maturity. The yield to higher modern studies questions maturity is the discount rate that equates the value of the bond with the present value of the stream of paper, cash flows (interest and principal) (Reilly and Brown, 2009). As the price of the bond increases, the yield to essay maturity decreases and when the price of the bond decreases, the yield to maturity increases. Warriors! This increase and decrease in the prices of the bond is due to the risk of the bond. When the price of the bond is below par value, there is more risk and is sold at a discount. When the price of the frederick frontier thesis quotes bond is above par value, there is less risk and sweatshop warriors, the bond is sold at a premium.
Yield curve is the representation of the term structure of interest rates. This shows the relationship between the yield of the frederick thesis security and the time of maturity of the security. It is composed of Treasury bills, Treasury notes, and Treasury bonds. There are certain shapes of the yield curve which are: positive (normal yield curve), flat, negative (inverse), and humped. The yield curve can be useful in forecasting interest rates, detecting overpriced and underpriced securities, and for financial intermediaries. An upward-sloping yield curve can allow investors to look for opportunities to sweatshop warriors term paper move away from higher china essay questions long-term securities into investments whose market price is term less sensitive to interest changes (Rose, 2008). With Quadratic Equations! On the other hand, a downward-sloping yield curve notifies the likelihood that there will be decline in the interest rates thus; increasing the prices of the bonds if the market's prediction of lower interest rates becomes true.
The yield curve can also detect overpriced and warriors paper, underpriced securities. If a security's yield lies above the yield curve, this means that the security is temporarily underpriced in relation to problems equations other securities with the same maturity. On the other hand, a security's yield lying below the yield curve means that the security is temporarily overpriced in relation to other securities with the same maturity. Lastly, a yield curve is important for financial intermediaries since they use it for profiting. The steeper the upward slope of the yield curve, the wider the spread between borrowing and lending rates and the higher the profit for the financial intermediary. A A A A A A. 3.2.4 Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index. The Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index (PSEi), formerly called Phisix, is the main stock market index in the Philippines. This is composed of a fixed basket of thirty common stocks of sweatshop, listed companies, carefully selected to represent the general movement of the stock market (PSEacademy administrator, 2011). Higher China Questions! This is the benchmark in measuring the stock market performance in the country. The foreign exchange rate is the sweatshop warriors rate by which a currency is frederick jackson turner frontier pegged in another country's currency.
Exchange rates changes in sweatshop term paper response to the supply and demand conditions. If government agencies, corporations, and individuals suddenly shifted their aggregate demand on a certain currency, or shifted their aggregate supply of that currency, the price will change (Madura, 2008). An aggregate demand on a currency will appreciate its value while an aggregate supply of a currency will depreciate the value. The risk associated with foreign exchange rate is the foreign exchange risk. This type of risk is due to the varying exchange rates between two currencies. Foreign exchange risk is the exposure of potential losses due to the devaluation of the modern studies china essay local currency against the foreign currency. Usually, the ones that are mostly affected by this risk are the investors, exporters and warriors term paper, importers, and businessmen. Frederick Turner Frontier Thesis Quotes! To manage this risk, people can trade local currencies to prevent having an exposure to foreign exchange risk.
They can also use hedging techniques, like forward contracts, to deal with the sweatshop term paper risk. a?†CSt = I?0 + I?1a?†USt + I?2a?†(USt)2 + I?3a?†Slopet + I?4a?†PSEi + I?5a?†USDPHP + Iµ. a?†CSt = changes in credit spread. a?†USt = changes in the 10-year U.S. government bond yield. a?†(USt)2 = changes in the squared value of 10-year U.S. government bond yield. a?†Slopet = changes in the yield of 10-year U.S. government bond less the yield of 2 year U.S. government bond. a?†PSEi = changes in the lagged returns on research, the PSEi. a?†USDPHP = changes in the USD/PHP exchange rate. In evaluating the model, the researchers will first use the Pearson Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient in determining the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variable.
To provide more evidence on the relationship of the independent variables to the dependent variables, the sweatshop term researchers will use the Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) Model for the regression to eliminate possible autocorrelation in the residuals. Before using the technique, Augmented Dickey-Fuller test will be used to examine if the data is stationary or not. The researchers will also use the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) Model for robustness checking to essay elementary teaching eliminate volatility clustering in the time-series data. Table 1 - A-priori Expectations of the Independent Variables to Credit Spread. Changes in the 10-year government bond yield.
The variable is negatively- related to credit spread because when the warriors term risk-free bond yield increases, the difference between the elementary rate of the risky security and risk-free security narrows thus, lowering the probability of warriors term, default. Changes in the slope of the yield curve. This variable is negatively-related to credit spread because when the warming is fake essay difference between the 10-year and the 2-year yield increases, this should increase the future short rates causing a decrease in warriors term the credit spread. Changes in the lagged returns on the PSEi. This variable is negatively-related to essay credit spread because when the returns on the PSE Composite Index are positive, this means that the warriors term paper economy is good, thus, credit spreads should be low. Changes in the foreign exchange rate.
This variable is positively-related to credit spread because depreciation in the home currency will mean that the home country (local currency) will have to pay more of the foreign country's currency thus, increasing the credit spread. 3.3.3 Operational Definitions. Augmented Dickey Fuller Test. - a statistical test that determines if the data is stationary or not. Pearson Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient. - A technique that measures the correlation of linearly-related variables. Autoregressive and Moving Average Model. - It notifies that the dependent variable is higher studies china essay questions also reliant on its value in the previous time period and the value of the white noise error term in the previous time period.
Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity Model. - The conditional variance of the error term depends not only on the squared error term in the previous time period but also on paper, its conditional variance in problems with quadratic the previous time period (Gujarati, 2003). - The difference between the warriors yield of a risky security and a risk-free rate security with the same maturities. - This is the yield to maturity of the writing government bond. Slope of the Yield Curve. - The difference between the 10-year government bond yield and a 2-year government bond yield. Philippine Stock Exchange Index.
- The main stock market index in the Philippines that measures the performance of the sweatshop warriors term paper stock market. - The rate in essay elementary which the USD (Dollar) can be converted into PHP (Peso). This chapter illustrates the research design and sampling design used in sweatshop warriors term the study, the data description and data collection of the study. This chapter will also discuss the solving with equations method of data analysis used by the researchers as well as the sweatshop term paper methodological limitations evident in the study. Correlational research and jackson turner thesis quotes, evaluative research are the research designs that the researchers will be using in the study. A correlational research will be conducted to determine whether the independent variables have a significant effect on sweatshop, the dependent variable which is the credit spread changes. This research design establishes the relationship between the variables whether it is positive or negative. An evaluative research will also be adopted to solving problems with quadratic assess the performance outcome or impact of the independent variables to warriors term the credit spread while considering an adequate time span from 2005 to 2011, to identify the effects accurately. The study covers ROP bonds, which are U.S. dollar-denominated bonds, issued from the years 2005 to elementary teaching 2011. Warriors Term Paper! Daily observations of the variables are used which were obtained from Bloomberg. China! A ROP bonds pay out paper semi-annual coupons and have a 30/360 day-count convention.
Eleven bonds were issued within the jackson frontier quotes sample period, all of warriors, which are incorporated into the study. The credit spread is essay estimated by the difference between these eleven ROP bonds and U.S. benchmark treasury bonds of the same maturities. 4.3 Data Description and Data Collection. The study will use daily observations of the variables covering the periods 2005-2011. Data for warriors the credit spread, bond yield, slope of the yield curve and returns on the PSE composite indexA were all obtained from thesis based masters Bloomberg. For the foreign exchange rate, the figures were sourced from OANDA. The dependent variable is the paper credit spread changes which is measured as the difference between the changes in the yields of the ROP bonds and U.S. Treasury bonds having the same maturities.
On the other hand, the independent variables are the bond yield, slope of the yield curve, lagged returns on the PSE Composite index and the foreign exchange rate. Innovations to interest rate factors, particularly changes in the bond yield and china essay questions, slope of the yield curve, are considered as the most important determinants of changes in the credit spread. The spot rate is proxied by the changes on the 10-year U.S. treasury bond yield while the changes in the slope of the sweatshop warriors term yield curve is calculated as the difference between the changes in frederick jackson turner frontier thesis the yield of the 10-year and 2-year U.S. Treasury bond. The squared values of the bond yield are also included in the model to sweatshop term paper take into account the nonlinear effects due to the curvature of the yields of the U.S treasury bonds. Changes in the lagged returns on the PSE Composite Index are incorporated in the model to determine the psychology effect of the stock returns to the credit spread.
This variable serves as proxy for the expected future gains of the economy. Lastly, historical Dollar against Peso (USD/PHP) exchange rates taken from OANDA are used for the foreign exchange rate variable as proxy for macroeconomic uncertainty. Warriors Term Paper! A In the problems equations study of Batten et al. (2006), the exchange rate variable was found to have significant effects to the spreads on Philippine bonds whereas, Yap and Gannon (2007) considered foreign exchange risk an important factor in the investment decision of foreign currency bonds. For the study, the researchers will conduct a correlation test using Pearson's Product Momentum Correlation Coefficient to determine the relationship of the independent variables to the credit spread. It is usually referred as Pearson's r which is used for data measured on an interval or ratio scale (Jackson, 2011). The sign of the Pearson indicates the sweatshop paper direction of the essay elementary relationship either positive or negative, whereas the value indicates its strength (Lomax, 2007). A. Tests for warriors term paper stationarity would also be necessary since a non-stationary series would lead to spurious results from econometric tests. For the stationarity test, the researchers will use the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test, a statistical test which takes into writing psychology research papers, account the possible correlation in the error terms to determine if a series is stationary.
In case that results indicate non-stationarity, the integration process will be applied wherein the series is differenced d times to achieve stationarity. A time-series regression, specifically the Autoregressive and Moving Average (ARMA) Model, shall be applied in investigating the effects of the explanatory variables to credit spread changes. The ARMA model is term a combination of the Autoregressive and Moving Average scheme which informs that the dependent variable relies on its own previous values and a combination of the elementary current and previous values of a white noise error term, which is a random error term having zero mean, constant variance, and no autocorrelation. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) model was also applied for a more efficient re-estimation of the equation and robustness checking. In the GARCH model, the conditional variance of the error term not only relies on sweatshop term, the squared error term in the previous time period but also on its conditional variance in the previous time period (Gujarati, 2003). The GARCH process exhibits heavy tails thus it can model both the conditional heteroscedasticity and heavy tailed distributions of financial market data (Ruppert, 2010). Investigations of the study of Yap and Gannon (2007) on the credit spreads and residuals from the equation reveal that some of the series exhibits autocorrelation which means that the spreads of the series are continuously influenced by based, past spreads. By using the term paper ARMA model, the autocorrelation shall be eliminated in the regression. Accordingly, the equation is extended with the inclusion of Autoregressive terms (AR) and Moving Average terms to specify the dependent variable, which is the credit spread changes, as a function of its past values.
In the event that the series shows evidence of possessing residual serial correlation, GARCH specifications should be applied since the models are still mildly misspecified. In effect, results would be sharpened as well as the significance of the variables tested in the mean regressions. Residual parameters and standard errors in the re-estimated equation are also expected to become more efficient, exhibiting a normal distribution without serial correlations. 4.5 Methodological Limitations. Linear structural time-series models are unable to explain certain features common to financial data. Given that the conditional variance of the writing research papers ARMA model is constant, it cannot capture the sweatshop warriors term volatility of the time-series data.
Financial asset returns also tend to have heavy tail distributions which means that there is a larger probability of acquiring very large values. With Equations! As the study uses daily data, volatility clustering in paper financial returns is evident because the elementary teaching persistence of conditional volatility tends to increase with the sample (Alexander, 2002) but, an ARMA linear regression does not accommodate volatility clustering. For all these reasons, another time-series model is term paper considered, which is the GARCH model, since it has randomly varying volatility, exhibits heavy tails and eliminates volatility clustering (Ruppert, 2010).
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far cotr resume This subpart provides policies and establishes responsibilities for recording and maintaining contractor performance information. This subpart does not apply to procedures used by agencies in sweatshop warriors, determining fees under award or incentive fee contracts. See subpart 16.4. However, the fee amount paid to contractors should be reflective of the contractor’s performance and the past performance evaluation should closely parallel and be consistent with the higher modern studies china essay, fee determinations. (a) Past performance information (including the ratings and supporting narratives) is sweatshop warriors term, relevant information, for future source selection purposes, regarding a contractor’s actions under previously awarded contracts or orders. Frederick Jackson Frontier. It includes, for sweatshop term example, the contractor’s record of (1) Conforming to requirements and to standards of good workmanship; (2) Forecasting and controlling costs; (3) Adherence to schedules, including the administrative aspects of warming is fake, performance; (4) Reasonable and cooperative behavior and commitment to customer satisfaction; (5) Reporting into databases (see subpart 4.14, and reporting requirements in the solicitation provisions and sweatshop warriors term clauses referenced in 9.104-7); (6) Integrity and business ethics; and. (7) Business-like concern for the interest of the customer.
(b) Agencies shall monitor their compliance with the global essay, past performance evaluation requirements (see 42.1502), and use the Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System (CPARS) and Past Performance Information Retrieval System (PPIRS) metric tools to measure the quality and timely reporting of past performance information. (a) General. Past performance evaluations shall be prepared at least annually and at term paper the time the work under a contract or order is completed. Essay Elementary Teaching. Past performance evaluations are required for warriors term contracts and orders as specified in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, including contracts and higher modern questions orders performed outside the sweatshop, United States. These evaluations are generally for elementary teaching the entity, division, or unit that performed the contract or order. Past performance information shall be entered into CPARS, the paper, Governmentwide evaluation reporting tool for all past performance reports on global warming essay contracts and orders. Instructions for submitting evaluations into CPARS are available at http://www.cpars.gov/. (b) Contracts.
Except as provided in paragraphs (e), (f), and (h) of this section, agencies shall prepare evaluations of contractor performance for sweatshop warriors term each contract (as defined in essay elementary, FAR part 2) that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold and for each order that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold. Agencies are required to prepare an sweatshop evaluation if a modification to the contract causes the dollar amount to exceed the global is fake essay, simplified acquisition threshold. (c) Orders under multiple-agency contracts. Agencies shall prepare an evaluation of contractor performance for each order that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold that is placed under a Federal Supply Schedule contract or placed under a task-order contract or a delivery-order contract awarded by another agency (i.e., Governmentwide acquisition contract or multi-agency contract). Agencies placing orders under their own multiple-agency contract shall also prepare evaluations for their own orders.
This evaluation shall not consider the requirements under paragraph (g) of this section. Agencies are required to sweatshop prepare an frederick thesis quotes evaluation if a modification to the order causes the sweatshop warriors term, dollar amount to writing psychology papers exceed the simplified acquisition threshold. (d) Orders under single-agency contracts. Warriors. For single-agency task-order and delivery-order contracts, the contracting officer may require performance evaluations for higher studies each order in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold when such evaluations would produce more useful past performance information for source selection officials than that contained in the overall contract evaluation (e.g., when the scope of the basic contract is very broad and the nature of individual orders could be significantly different). Paper. This evaluation need not consider the requirements under paragraph (g) of this section unless the contracting officer deems it appropriate. (e) Past performance evaluations shall be prepared for elementary teaching each construction contract of $700,000 or more, and for each construction contract terminated for default regardless of contract value. Past performance evaluations may also be prepared for construction contracts below $700,000. (f) Past performance evaluations shall be prepared for sweatshop paper each architect-engineer services contract of $35,000 or more, and for what is a thesis masters each architect-engineer services contract that is terminated for default regardless of contract value. Past performance evaluations may also be prepared for sweatshop warriors paper architect-engineer services contracts below $35,000. (g) Past performance evaluations shall include an assessment of the contractor’s (1) Performance against, and efforts to achieve, the jackson frontier, goals identified in the small business subcontracting plan when the contract includes the clause at 52.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan; and. (2) Reduced or untimely payments (as defined in 19.701), made to small business subcontractors, determined by the contracting officer to be unjustified.
The contracting officer shall (i) Consider and evaluate a contractor’s written explanation for a reduced or an untimely payment when determining whether the reduced or untimely payment is justified; and. (ii) Determine that a history of warriors paper, unjustified reduced or untimely payments has occurred when the contractor has reported three or more occasions of unjustified reduced or untimely payments under a single contract within a 12-month period (see 42.1503(h)(1)(vi) and the evaluation ratings in Table 42-2). The following payment or nonpayment situations are not considered to teaching be unjustified: (A) There is a contract dispute on performance. (B) A partial payment is made for sweatshop term paper amounts not in dispute. (C) A payment is reduced due to past overpayments.
(D) There is an administrative mistake. (E) Late performance by the subcontractor leads to later payment by the prime contractor. (h) Agencies shall not evaluate performance for what is a thesis based masters contracts awarded under subpart 8.7. (i) Agencies shall promptly report other contractor information in accordance with 42.1503(h). (j) Past performance evaluations shall include an assessment of contractor’s labor violation information when the contract includes the sweatshop, clause at 52.222-59, Compliance with Labor Laws (Executive Order 13673). Using information available to essay a contracting officer, past performance evaluations shall consider (1) A contractor’s relevant labor law violation information, e.g. , timely implementation of remedial measures and compliance with those remedial measures (including related labor compliance agreement(s)); and. (2) The extent to which the prime contractor addressed labor law violations by its subcontractors. Note to sweatshop warriors paper paragraph (j): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, this paragraph (j) is enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the essay elementary, order. The enjoined paragraph will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction.
At that time, GSA, DoD and paper NASA will publish a document in essay elementary, the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction. (a)(1) Agencies shall assign responsibility and sweatshop warriors term management accountability for the completeness of past performance submissions. Agency procedures for the past performance evaluation system shall (i) Generally provide for input to the evaluations from the frederick quotes, technical office, contracting office, program management office, agency labor compliance advisor (ALCA) office (see subpart 22.20), and, where appropriate, quality assurance and end users of the warriors, product or service; Note to paragraph (a)(1)(i): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, the words “agency labor compliance advisor (ALCA) office (see subpart 22.20)” in this paragraph (a)(1)(i) are enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined words will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction. (ii) Identify and assign past performance evaluation roles and responsibilities to those individuals responsible for preparing and essay elementary teaching reviewing interim evaluations, if prepared, and warriors term final evaluations (e.g., contracting officers, contracting officer representatives, project managers, and higher modern studies questions program managers).
Those individuals identified may obtain information for the evaluation of performance from the sweatshop warriors, program office, administrative contracting office, audit office, end users of the turner frontier, product or service, ALCA, and any other technical or business advisor, as appropriate; and. Note to paragraph (a)(1)(ii): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, the word “ALCA” in this paragraph (a)(1)(ii) are enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined words will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction. (iii) Address management controls and appropriate management reviews of past performance evaluations, to include accountability for documenting past performance on PPIRS. (2) If agency procedures do not specify the warriors term paper, individuals responsible for what thesis masters past performance evaluation duties, the contracting officer is responsible for warriors term this function. (3) Interim evaluations may be prepared as required, in accordance with agency procedures. (b)(1) The evaluation should include a clear, non-technical description of the principal purpose of the thesis, contract or order.
The evaluation should reflect how the sweatshop paper, contractor performed. The evaluation should include clear relevant information that accurately depicts the contractor’s performance, and be based on objective facts supported by program and contract or order performance data. Teaching. The evaluations should be tailored to sweatshop warriors term paper the contract type, size, content, and with complexity of the contractual requirements. (2) Evaluation factors for each assessment shall include, at a minimum, the following: (i) Technical (quality of product or service). (ii) Cost control (not applicable for firm-fixed-price or fixed-price with economic price adjustment arrangements). (iv) Management or business relations. (v) Small business subcontracting, including reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors when 19.702(a) requires a subcontracting plan (as applicable, see Table 42-2). (vi) Other (as applicable) ( e.g ., trafficking violations, tax delinquency, failure to report in accordance with contract terms and conditions, defective cost or pricing data, terminations, suspension and debarments). (3) Evaluation factors may include subfactors. (4) Each factor and subfactor used shall be evaluated and sweatshop paper a supporting narrative provided.
Each evaluation factor, as listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, shall be rated in accordance with a five scale rating system (i.e., exceptional, very good, satisfactory, marginal, and unsatisfactory). The ratings and narratives must reflect the definitions in the tables 42-1 or 42-2 of this section. (c)(1) When the frederick quotes, contract provides for incentive fees, the incentive-fee contract performance evaluation shall be entered into CPARS. (2) When the contract provides for award fee, the award fee-contract performance adjectival rating as described in 16.401(e)(3) shall be entered into CPARS. (d) Agency evaluations of contractor performance, including both negative and positive evaluations, prepared under this subpart shall be provided to the contractor as soon as practicable after completion of the evaluation.
The contractor will receive a CPARS-system generated notification when an evaluation is ready for comment. Contractors shall be afforded up to 14 calendar days from the date of notification of availability of the term paper, past performance evaluation to submit comments, rebutting statements, or additional information. Agencies shall provide for review at a level above the contracting officer to consider disagreements between the parties regarding the evaluation. The ultimate conclusion on elementary teaching the performance evaluation is a decision of the contracting agency. Copies of the evaluation, contractor response, and sweatshop review comments, if any, shall be retained as part of the evaluation.
These evaluations may be used to based masters support future award decisions, and should therefore be marked “Source Selection Information”. Evaluation of warriors, Federal Prison Industries (FPI) performance may be used to elementary teaching support a waiver request (see 8.604) when FPI is a mandatory source in sweatshop, accordance with subpart 8.6. The completed evaluation shall not be released to other than Government personnel and what is a the contractor whose performance is being evaluated during the period the information may be used to provide source selection information. Disclosure of such information could cause harm both to the commercial interest of the paper, Government and to the competitive position of the contractor being evaluated as well as impede the efficiency of Government operations. Evaluations used in determining award or incentive fee payments may also be used to satisfy the thesis masters, requirements of this subpart. A copy of the annual or final past performance evaluation shall be provided to the contractor as soon as it is sweatshop warriors paper, finalized. (e) Agencies shall require frequent evaluation (e.g., monthly, quarterly) of agency compliance with the reporting requirements in 42.1502, so agencies can readily identify delinquent past performance reports and writing research papers monitor their reports for quality control. (f) Agencies shall prepare and submit all past performance evaluations electronically in the CPARS at sweatshop warriors term paper http://www.cpars.gov/. These evaluations, including any contractor-submitted information (with indication whether agency review is pending), are automatically transmitted to PPIRS at http://www.ppirs.gov. not later than 14 days after the date on which the contractor is notified of the evaluation’s availability for comment. Warming Is Fake. The Government shall update PPIRS with any contractor comments provided after 14 days, as well as any subsequent agency review of comments received. Warriors Term Paper. Past performance evaluations for classified contracts and is a thesis masters special access programs shall not be reported in CPARS, but will be reported as stated in this subpart and in sweatshop warriors, accordance with agency procedures.
Agencies shall ensure that appropriate management and what thesis based masters technical controls are in place to ensure that only authorized personnel have access to the data and the information safeguarded in paper, accordance with 42.1503(d). (g) Agencies shall use the higher modern studies china questions, past performance information in PPIRS that is within three years (six for construction and architect-engineer contracts) of the warriors paper, completion of performance of the evaluated contract or order, and thesis quotes information contained in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), e.g., terminations for default or cause. (h) Other contractor performance information. (1) Agencies shall ensure information is accurately reported in the FAPIIS module of CPARS within 3 calendar days after a contracting officer (i) Issues a final determination that a contractor has submitted defective cost or pricing data; (ii) Makes a subsequent change to sweatshop term the final determination concerning defective cost or pricing data pursuant to 15.407-1(d); (iii) Issues a final termination for higher china essay questions cause or default notice; (iv) Makes a subsequent withdrawal or a conversion of a termination for default to a termination for convenience; (v) Receives a final determination after an administrative proceeding, in accordance with 22.1704(d)(1), that substantiates an allegation of a violation of the trafficking in persons prohibitions in 22.1703(a) and 52.222-50(b); or. (vi) Determines that a contractor has a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors under a single contract within a 12-month period (see 42.1502(g)(2)). (2) The information to be posted in accordance with this paragraph (h) is information relating to contractor performance, but does not constitute a “past performance review,” which would be exempted from public availability in accordance with section 3010 of the term paper, Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. 111-212). Therefore, all such information posted in FAPIIS will be publicly available, unless covered by a disclosure exemption under the Freedom of Information Act (see 9.105-2(b)(2)). (3) Agencies shall establish CPARS focal points who will register users to report data into the FAPIIS module of CPARS (available at solving problems equations http://www.cpars.gov/, then select FAPIIS).
(4) With regard to information that may be covered by a disclosure exemption under the Freedom of sweatshop term, Information Act, the contracting officer shall follow the what is a thesis based, procedures at 9.105-2(b)(2)(iv). (5) References to entries by the Government into FAPIIS that are not performance information . For other entries into term paper FAPIIS by the contracting officer see 9.105-2(b)(2) for documentation of a nonresponsibility determination. See 22.2004-1(c)(6) for thesis quotes documentation by the ALCA of warriors, a labor compliance agreement. See 9.406-3(f)(1) and 9.407-3(e) for entry by higher modern studies essay questions a suspending or debarring official of information regarding an administrative agreement. Note to paragraph (h)(5): By a court order issued on term October 24, 2016, this paragraph (h)(5) is enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the writing research papers, order. The enjoined paragraph will become effective immediately if the sweatshop warriors, court terminates the modern studies, injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and sweatshop warriors term NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction. Performance meets contractual requirements and exceeds many to the Government’s benefit. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element being evaluated was accomplished with few minor problems for which corrective actions taken by the contractor were highly effective. To justify an Exceptional rating, identify multiple significant events and state how they were of benefit to the Government.
A singular benefit, however, could be of such magnitude that it alone constitutes an Exceptional rating. Writing Research. Also, there should have been NO significant weaknesses identified. Performance meets contractual requirements and sweatshop term exceeds some to teaching the Government’s benefit. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element being evaluated was accomplished with some minor problems for which corrective actions taken by the contractor were effective. To justify a Very Good rating, identify a significant event and state how it was a benefit to the Government. Sweatshop. There should have been no significant weaknesses identified. Performance meets contractual requirements. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element contains some minor problems for which corrective actions taken by the contractor appear or were satisfactory. To justify a Satisfactory rating, there should have been only minor problems, or major problems the contractor recovered from without impact to the contract/order.
There should have been NO significant weaknesses identified. Higher Modern China Essay Questions. A fundamental principle of term paper, assigning ratings is that contractors will not be evaluated with a rating lower than Satisfactory solely for not performing beyond the teaching, requirements of the contract/order. Performance does not meet some contractual requirements. The contractual performance of the warriors paper, element or sub-element being evaluated reflects a serious problem for which the essay teaching, contractor has not yet identified corrective actions. The contractor’s proposed actions appear only marginally effective or were not fully implemented. To justify Marginal performance, identify a significant event in warriors, each category that the solving with equations, contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted the Government. A Marginal rating should be supported by referencing the management tool that notified the contractor of the contractual deficiency (e.g., management, quality, safety, or environmental deficiency report or letter). Performance does not meet most contractual requirements and sweatshop paper recovery is not likely in a timely manner. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element contains a serious problem(s) for which the contractor’s corrective actions appear or were ineffective.
To justify an Unsatisfactory rating, identify multiple significant events in what masters, each category that the sweatshop warriors, contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted the Government. A singular problem, however, could be of global warming essay, such serious magnitude that it alone constitutes an sweatshop warriors term paper unsatisfactory rating. An Unsatisfactory rating should be supported by referencing the management tools used to writing papers notify the contractor of the contractual deficiencies (e.g., management, quality, safety, or environmental deficiency reports, or letters). NOTE 1: Plus or minus signs may be used to indicate an improving (+) or worsening (-) trend insufficient to sweatshop term paper change the evaluation status. NOTE 2: N/A (not applicable) should be used if the ratings are not going to be applied to a particular area for evaluation.
Exceeded all statutory goals or goals as negotiated. Had exceptional success with initiatives to assist, promote, and utilize small business (SB), small disadvantaged business (SDB), women-owned small business (WOSB), HUBZone small business, veteran-owned small business (VOSB) and service disabled veteran owned small business (SDVOSB). Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of elementary teaching, Small Business Concerns. Exceeded any other small business participation requirements incorporated in the contract/order, including the use of small businesses in mission critical aspects of the paper, program. Went above and beyond the required elements of the subcontracting plan and other small business requirements of the teaching, contract/order. Completed and submitted Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate and timely manner. Sweatshop Term Paper. Did not have a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify an Exceptional rating, identify multiple significant events and state how they were a benefit to small business utilization. Problems With. A singular benefit, however, could be of such magnitude that it constitutes an Exceptional rating. Paper. Small businesses should be given meaningful and innovative work directly related to the contract, and opportunities should not be limited to indirect work such as cleaning offices, supplies, landscaping, etc. Also, there should have been no significant weaknesses identified.
Met all of the statutory goals or goals as negotiated. Problems Quadratic. Had significant success with initiatives to assist, promote and utilize SB, SDB, WOSB, HUBZone, VOSB, and warriors term SDVOSB. Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns. Met or exceeded any other small business participation requirements incorporated in the contract/order, including the problems with quadratic, use of small businesses in mission critical aspects of the sweatshop warriors term, program. Endeavored to go above and beyond the required elements of the subcontracting plan. Completed and submitted Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in higher studies essay, an accurate and timely manner. Did not have a history of sweatshop warriors term, three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period.
To justify a Very Good rating, identify a significant event and state how it was a benefit to small business utilization. Small businesses should be given meaningful and innovative opportunities to participate as subcontractors for work directly related to the contract, and opportunities should not be limited to indirect work such as cleaning offices, supplies, landscaping, etc. What Masters. There should be no significant weaknesses identified. Demonstrated a good faith effort to meet all of the negotiated subcontracting goals in term, the various socio-economic categories for the current period. Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of psychology papers, Small Business Concerns.
Met any other small business participation requirements included in the contract/order. Fulfilled the requirements of the term, subcontracting plan included in the contract/order. Completed and submitted Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate and timely manner. Psychology. Did not have a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify a Satisfactory rating, there should have been only minor problems, or major problems the contractor has addressed or taken corrective action. Paper. There should have been no significant weaknesses identified. A fundamental principle of assigning ratings is that contractors will not be assessed a rating lower than Satisfactory solely for not performing beyond the requirements of the contract/order. Deficient in meeting key subcontracting plan elements. Deficient in complying with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns, and any other small business participation requirements in the contract/order. Did not submit Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate or timely manner. Modern China Questions. Failed to satisfy one or more requirements of a corrective action plan currently in place; however, does show an warriors paper interest in bringing performance to a satisfactory level and has demonstrated a commitment to apply the necessary resources to do so.
Required a corrective action plan. Did not have a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify a Marginal rating, identify a significant event that the contractor had trouble overcoming and how it impacted small business utilization. A Marginal rating should be supported by referencing the research papers, actions taken by the Government that notified the contractor of the sweatshop warriors term, contractual deficiency. Noncompliant with FAR 52.219-8 and 52.219-9, and thesis any other small business participation requirements in term paper, the contract/order. Did not submit Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate or timely manner. Equations. Showed little interest in bringing performance to a satisfactory level or is warriors term paper, generally uncooperative.
Required a corrective action plan. Had a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify an Unsatisfactory rating, identify multiple significant events that the contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted small business utilization. A singular problem, however, could be of such serious magnitude that it alone constitutes an Unsatisfactory rating. Is A Thesis Based. An Unsatisfactory rating should be supported by referencing the sweatshop warriors paper, actions taken by elementary teaching the Government to notify the contractor of the deficiencies. When an Unsatisfactory rating is justified, the contracting officer must consider whether the contractor made a good faith effort to comply with the requirements of the subcontracting plan required by FAR 52.219-9 and follow the procedures outlined in 52.219-16, Liquidated Damages-Subcontracting Plan.
NOTE 1: Plus or minus signs may be used to indicate an improving (+) or worsening (-) trend insufficient to sweatshop warriors change evaluation status. NOTE 2: Generally, zero percent is not a goal unless the contracting officer determined when negotiating the subcontracting plan that no subcontracting opportunities exist in global warming is fake, a particular socio-economic category. In such cases, the warriors, contractor shall be considered to warming have met the goal for any socio-economic category where the goal negotiated in the plan was zero. Insert the clause at 52.242-5, Payments to warriors term paper Small Business Subcontractors, in all solicitations and contracts containing the clause at 52.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan.
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How To Write A Resume Summary: 21 Best Examples You Will See. What is the best way to warriors, start a resume? The Ladder's research found that recruiters spend an average of 6 seconds looking at teaching, your resume! Yeah, you read that right. That means you've got to give recruiters what they want to see in the blink of an eye . Sweatshop Warriors Term Paper? But how? A little something called a resume summary . Papers? A good resume summary puts the information recruiters are looking for first. In this article, I will explain how to write a resume summary that gives recruiters what they want most . And I will explain how to showcase that information so that it catches the sweatshop paper, employer’s attention. A great resume summary goes at the top of the page - in the most prominent position. Use it to attract recruiters' attention. Here is a template from our resume builder (create your resume) . See how the resume summary sample stands out? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction highlighting your career progress and is fake, skill set.
An example of a resume summary looks like this: Administrative Assistant with +3 years of experience in sweatshop term paper, a sensitive corporate environment. Outgoing and detail-oriented, I am proficient at solving problems quadratic equations, building and maintaining professional relationships. Have an Associate's Degree in Office Administration. Administrative Assistant seeking meaninful work in a corporate environment where I can learn and develop my skills. A resume summary is also known as:
Think of it as an “elevator pitch” or “sales pitch” that you can use anytime someone says: Pro Tip: If you're looking for samples of resumes and summaries for warriors paper specific professions, you may also want to take a look at our resume examples section. Resume Summary vs. Jackson Turner Quotes? Objective: What’s the paper, Difference? The difference between a general resume summary and what is a, a resume objective looks like this: You are at sweatshop paper, a party.
Let’s call you Robert. Your wingman approaches the girl you like. Robert likes girls and wants to leverage his skills to writing psychology research, marry one. Boyfriend Material experienced at warriors paper, laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and based, pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events.
Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. Which wingman is going to get Robert the girl? The resume objective was acceptable a long time ago when dinosaurs roamed the Earth. All you had to do at the beginning of sweatshop warriors term a resume was write a one-liner that told the recruiter: 2. That you want the job. Then a meteor came and smashed into the Earth, and all the solving problems with quadratic, resume objectives died.
Resume objectives are still extremely useful for sweatshop warriors term certain types of job seekers. So, Who Should Use a Professional Resume Summary? Resume summaries are for people with years of experience who are not making a career change. You should consider writing a resume objective if you have no experience, are in the middle of a career change, or have some gaps in your job history. If you think that a resume objective would be a better fit for you, read our full guide on how to write resume objectives: +20 Resume Objective Examples - Use Them On Your Resume (Tips) And Where Does a Resume Summary Statement Go on a Resume? A professional summary for a resume should go at the top under the contact information. You will find that experts will refer to this space as “prime real estate” - the penthouse of based masters your resume. Whatever you put there will be the first thing a recruiter will see when they look at your resume. When the sweatshop, resume summary section is first, a hiring manager sees your value right now. So, don't waste the space.
How Long Should a Career Summary on equations a Resume Be? Depending on who you ask, you will be told that a good example of warriors term paper a resume summary is anywhere from three to six sentences. As I mentioned in the beginning, an average recruiter will only global is fake essay, spend six seconds looking at sweatshop warriors term, a resume. That converts to about 20 or 30 words, which is higher essay questions, around the length of a Tweet. You should also pay attention to the fact that a reader scanning a document will skip over large blocks of warriors term text. With that in mind, you should consider keeping your personal resume summary statement on is fake essay the shorter side: Around 3 sentences or 50 words. Pro Tip: Resume summaries tend to be short. Take a look at a sample resume template from our resume builder. You can create a similar resume here.
A resume template from our resume builder - create your resume here. How to Write a Resume Summary in 7 Easy Steps. 1. How to sweatshop warriors term, Start a Summary With a Few of Your Best Accomplishments. When you start writing a professional summary for a resume, it is best to sit down for a moment and think back over the long span of what your career. What are my brightest moments? What am I proud of achieving? What do I love most about sweatshop warriors term paper what I do?
What do I do best? Once you’ve brainstormed, make a list of essay elementary your achievements (about six bullet points). This is your master list. Here is what it would look like if you were, for example, Indiana Jones: Indy’s Master List of Accomplishments and Top Skills. Found the term paper, Ark of the Covenant. Based? Found the Sankara Stones. Sweatshop Warriors Paper? Found the Holy Grail. Effectively able to dispatch Nazi bad guys.
Proficient in the use of a bullwhip. Able to fly planes, ride horses, and commandeer motorcycles. Keep in mind that these are the brightest moments and essay teaching, can come from any point in your career. Now make a quick list of your top transferable skills. Transferable skills are skills that you can use in any job . Term? For example, being able to write or being able to speak fluent Spanish. Research and analytical thinking skills (70% of my work is done in the library). Excellent cultural sensitivity. Able to is fake, work in a high-stress, fast-paced environment.
Linguist (Speak fluent German, Hindi, and Mandarin Chinese - among other languages). Now you have a master list of your achievements and a master list of your transferable skills. Set these aside for paper a moment. And make sure you read this article to find out what skills are currently the most desirable for resumes. You will also find actionable tips on how to showcase your skills on a resume, and a pretty cool infographic featuring R2D2.
What does R2D2 have to do with resume skills? Find out here. 2. Scan the Job Post - Find out What the Employer Needs. Keywords are the based, particular skills or qualities an employer lists in a job post. Highlight or underline the keyword skills that you find in your job description. Who are they looking for?
What value do they want an employee to provide? What extra skills or qualities not listed would add unexpected value? Indy’s Job Description - Cocktail Server. 3. Research the Job - Find Out What is Valuable. Find a few similar job posts. Sweatshop Warriors Term? Again, highlight or underline all of the keyword skills and requirements.
Compare the new keywords to those in your job description. Anything that does not have a duplicate could add extra value to higher essay, your resume. Look up other professionals on LinkedIn with the same job as the one you want. Their skills section should give you a sense of term paper what recruiters value in that profession. 4. Tailor Your List - Make Your Skills List a Recruiter’s Wish List. Which of my skills and accomplishments match those listed in the job description? How do my accomplishments and skills position me to solve the employer’s problems? What details can I add for amplification (numbers, details, proof like certificates or awards)? 5. Essay Teaching? Start With Your Title to Define Yourself Out of the Gate. Starting a professional summary for a resume with your professional title allows a recruiter to know right away that your resume is relevant.
Pro Tip: Make your professional title bold in order to draw attention to it, so that it is sweatshop warriors paper, easy for is fake essay recruiters to find. You will also want to add the sweatshop term paper, number of years you worked in what is a thesis based masters, that position. Sassy Marketing Manager with 5+ years of experience. 6. Term? Focus on Specific Results to Prove and Demonstrate Value. Now it’s time to go back to your master list. Condense your list of 6 accomplishments down to essay elementary teaching, about 3 concise and warriors term, specific sentences. As you describe your accomplishments and skills, add numbers, details, and proof. Focusing on quantifiable results in a career summary for a resume does a couple of things: Draws the global essay, eye of the recruiter and gives them a tangible sense of what you’ve achieved. Provides proof that your claims are more than just hot air.
Sets you above other candidates who did not elaborate on their accomplishments. Helps the warriors term paper, recruiter imagine you achieving the same results for them. Indy’s Professional Resume Summary Sample. Cocktail Waiter Improved collection of tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. An analytical, fast learner with 2+ years of experience in global, on-demand service positions on zeppelins, boats, and trains. Leveraged extensive cultural and is a thesis based, linguistic knowledge (Mandarin Chinese and Hindi) to recover the Sankara Stones while maintaining the sweatshop, highest level of customer service.
Able to global essay, endure exposure to elements such as lava and snake pits, and able to physically outmaneuver such obstacles as giant boulders in boobytrapped tombs. Guest Services, Sales, and People Skills Able to Learn and Master New Information Basic Math Bilingual Extensive Physical Activity Exposure to Elements. As you can see, Indy starts his sample resume summary statement by opening with the title of the job (one of his professional titles) and a headline. His headline is supported by details: He then adds five of the six skills from the warriors, job description that match his skill set to his resume summary . He also adds details to amplify the information: “Linguistic knowledge” is essay, amplified by sweatshop warriors term paper “Mandarin Chinese and Hindi,” which also covers the “Bilingual” language bonus from the job description. He avoids the first person, has added keywords like “exposure to elements,” and has added extra value by exhibiting experience in what thesis based, wait service on various modes of transportation that might be interesting to an employer seeking a waiter to warriors term, serve drinks on a boat. Dr.
Jones has also managed to squeeze in essay teaching, a transferable skill - “cultural sensitivity/knowledge.” 7. The Name Drop - A Tried and True Way to paper, Generate Interest. Mention the organizations, clients, and past employers that you’ve worked for where appropriate. Name dropping is an old marketing technique that you can use when writing a resume summary for essay a resume to warriors, impress and establish authority and credibility. One word of warning: Employers could see name dropping as unprofessional snobbery. You need to make sure you don’t cross the line. Also, you don't want to name drop confidential clients - because, you know, they're confidential.
What you can do instead is say: I worked with top, global clients from (insert specific industry here) . It is writing research papers, best to name drop when it proves the thing you want to sweatshop paper, show the hiring manager in a professional summary for a resume. The candidate who did it right has name dropped to prove that her clients are large, multi-national companies. The 7 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Resume Summary. 1. Consider Adding a Headline for Extra Oomph. After you write your title, you can add a headline that sums up the main benefits of hiring you. Improved collection of essay tickets onboard German zeppelin by 100%. 2. Microsoft Word is Not an Accomplishment So Leave It Out. Leave your core competencies for the skills section of your resume. The resume summary section is for your best skills and keyword skills. Microsoft Office is boring and pedestrian. Your mom, your sister, and your dog can all use Word.
And to further avoid being boring in a professional summary for a resume, consider using action verbs to describe your best skills. Avoid boring adjectives like “articulate” or “innovative.” Also, get rid of overused verbs like “managed” or “organized.” Action verbs are energetic and specific: Don’t go overboard. Term Paper? You don’t want to sound like a Freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary for frederick thesis quotes the sake of it. Remember that you should use keywords even if they are adjectives. There is a good chance that your resume will be fed through an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). The ATS will scan your resume for keywords from the job description. So you need to include them throughout your resume. 3. Ditch the First Person Pronouns to sweatshop, Focus on the Employer. By skipping the “I” and “me” stuff, your resume summary section will stay focused on the employer.
When you use the warming, third person and warriors paper, the present tense, a recruiter will be able to envision you doing that work for them. Here are some resume summary statement examples with and without the global warming is fake essay, first person. If you think it's more appropriate to use the warriors paper, first person, you should. Frederick Turner Frontier Thesis? It's up to you to decide. 4. Ignore Tasks You Hate For Your Sake. When you are making lists of what to include on sweatshop warriors a resume don’t add anything you hate doing. Same goes for a summary in frontier thesis quotes, a resume. If you hate doing something (even if you are really good at warriors paper, it), leave it.
You will just get stuck doing it again at your new job, and it won’t make you happy. 5. Avoid Being Generic By Tailoring Each Resume Summary to the Job. Yes, that’s right. Every time you respond to a different job post, you will need to write a new resume summary. The professional resume summary is only at peak effectiveness if you tailor it to fit one job description. So, if you are applying for turner thesis 100 jobs, you need 100 resume summaries. You don't have to rewrite the entire thing. You can simply retouch your best resume summary by changing keywords.
Just make sure that it is tailored to the job post. How long should a resume be? In a word: short. Some experts will tell you about the sweatshop warriors, “one-page rule.” You should aim for one page, but resumes are not glass slippers.
You do not need to cram everything on one page like an ugly stepsister if it doesn't fit. A good rule of elementary thumb is to condense resume sections like the sweatshop paper, resume summary section at the end of the essay, writing process. Trim the sweatshop term paper, fat and is a masters, keep it lean. Good professional summary examples don't exceed a paragraph of text or a few bullet points. If you're having trouble with the warriors paper, length of your resume, have a look at our guide on resume length: How Long Should A Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know 7. Avoid the Cardinal Sin of writing psychology papers Resume Writing. No good will come out of lying on your resume - even if it’s just a little white lie. Maybe you aren’t as good at warriors, creating spreadsheets as you made it sound.
Good luck explaining that when an elaborate spreadsheet is is fake, your first task. Let's say you lie in sweatshop term paper, your hobbies section - you say you like Game of writing psychology research Thrones when you don't. Who cares? Maybe the rabid fan who is sweatshop term, conducting your interview. Now you know nothing, Jon Snow. Uh oh. The best resume summary grabs recruiters’ attention by shouting out: And this is useful when it falls into the hands of a bored and overworked recruiter. In three punchy lines, you can show anyone reading your resume the brightest moments of your career and your dazzling set of skills. Bonus: Download these super-actionable examples of resume summaries that match real job posts here: Resume Summary Examples for Your Profession.”
Do you have any question about how to masters, write a great resume summary for your position? Leave a comment. Sweatshop? I'll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at higher questions, Uptowork. She loves writing about paper resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.
She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.