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Writing Great Book Reports: Fiction and Nonfiction. You probably began writing book reports in elementary school. Jokes? When you were younger, it seemed like an about malaysian easy assignment. Sanjaya did many book reports when he was younger but this is the first one he will be doing in essay, high school. His teacher has explained all the information that should be included. Sanjaya began by reading the first few pages of act of, several books. He told the library about the kind of books he likes. The librarian made several suggestions. This one combines interesting characters and some wild adventures. It#8217;s so good that Sanjaya hates to english, put the book down for meals.

Book Reports in lower grades were easy. They included. About Lifestyle? 1. Reading a book usually a book you wanted to essay jokes, read anyway. 2. Writing about the story, without telling the ending. 3. Writing your opinion of the book including what you liked best and what you didn#8217;t like.

4. Students often ended y oral reports by telling classmates it was a great book and they should #8220;Read the death and unusual, book and find out what happened.#8221; 1. You are older and your teachers now expect book reports showing advanced organization and writing skills. 2. Each teacher who asks you to essay, write a book report will have different instructions including the types of books, the length of reports, and the topics to cover. Research Papers? Some teachers might give you a list of books to choose from. If you really don#8217;t like any books on the list you could always ask the teacher if something you like of equal or greater difficulty could be substituted. Writing a Book Report on Works of Fiction. An English teacher will ask you to read fiction, possibly from a certain time period or by a certain author. They might tell you to include:

1. the setting (place, time, weather) 2. the characters (sometimes including the protagonist or main character and the antagonist or enemy) 3. the genre (category such as romance, science fiction, fantasy, mystery, adventure, suspense, horror, historical, or literary fiction.) If you aren#8217;t sure of the essay jokes, genre, ask a librarian to help. Some books are a combination of genres. One of my favorite authors writes mysteries on act of kindness essay other plants: It is both mystery and english jokes science fiction. Others combine mysteries and romance. Vampire stories seem to have become a separate genre, at least for now. 4. a summary of the plot. This might include the type of conflict (if you have studied this) and a description of the climax.

Be sure to find out if the essay, teacher wants you to include the ending or resolution of the conflict. 5. the tone, mood, or theme of the book. 6. the essay, Point of research papers in electrical, View who is the narrator of the book? 7. When evaluating the book, you might support your opinions by including several quotations from the book. Your teacher might consider #8220;You should read this book to see what happens,#8221; to be out of place at essay jokes your age. You might instead describe the essay, strong and weak points in the book. Writing a Book Report on a work of Nonfiction. English Essay? This is less common but could be assigned in classes such as history or science.

This will seem strange. And Unusual Punishment Essay? You won#8217;t use setting, characters, genre, plot, theme, or point of view. Instead of a report on a book, you might be asked to report on an article. Your teacher will probably explain what they do expect. They will probably want: 1. The main idea of the entire book . This is the reason the english essay, author wrote the book. Sometimes there is a question that the writer attempts to answer. Sometimes it is an analysis of a situation.

Look for the author#8217;s thesis, the brief statement of their main idea. Use this as the introduction to your report. 2. You cannot summarize every chapter in the book. Choose three or four of the most important ideas that support the author#8217;s thesis. Essays On Social Web? These should form the three or four paragraphs in the body of the report. 3. In nonfiction, the background of the english essay, author is important.

What qualifies this author to write on this topic? Look at the bibliography and see how much research the author has done. Are the books in the bibliography all from one particular perspective or from many different points of view? You might check the Internet for more information about the author. This along with the analysis of the author#8217;s thinking might form the penalty, conclusion if it is brief. If they are detailed and essay significant, they can be additional paragraphs in the body of the report, followed by essays web, a conclusion. English Essay? 4. It is important to use critical thinking.

Does the is a and unusual essay, author separate facts and opinions? Are the #8220;facts#8221; they use accepted as true by english essay, educated people in the field? Does the author look at essays a topic from many points of view? Would you consider the author fair-minded or does the author show bias or a certain slant (particularly common in books on politics)? Does the author #8220;jump to conclusions#8221; without sufficient proof? Know what your report should include BEFORE you begin to read. As you read, take notes on appropriate topics. You could use bookmarks or sticky notes for pages you might want to re-read or take quotes from.

Your outline is easy. English Essay Jokes? You will use the categories above or what your teacher recommends. Be sure you have three or four main ideas in each category. With this, the report should be easy to write. If your report includes an oral presentation, you might add visuals to make the report more interesting.

Try to begin with an exciting introduction that will make your listeners want to hear more.

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1 - L’indetermination des anticipations rationnelles. Lorsqu’on quitte le cadre du modele Arrow-Debreu d’equilibre general et ses hypotheses restrictives pour s’interesser a des economies monetaires ou sequentielles, la maniere dont les acteurs economiques interpretent leur environnement et se projettent dans l’avenir s’impose aux theoriciens comme une question decisive qui ne peut plus etre eludee. English? Cette prise en compte des anticipations n’est pas sans danger pour le paradigme fondamentaliste dans la mesure ou elle confronte le discours economique a un objet nouveau, la cognition individuelle. An Unexpected? On doit alors se demander si les outils economiques traditionnels sont capables d’en proposer une analyse pertinente et complete ou s’il faut transformer en profondeur le discours fondamentaliste pour l’ouvrir a de nouveaux principes. English Essay? La rationalite instrumentale reste-t-elle pertinente ou faut-il admettre l’existence d’une rationalite specifique, qu’on dira « cognitive » ? Pour faire face a ces defis de grande ampleur, la pensee fondamentaliste a elabore une puissante reponse tournant autour des notions d’efficience informationnelle des prix et d’« anticipation rationnelle ». Essay Malaysian Lifestyle? L’idee directrice consiste a montrer que, certes, l’acteur economique reagit a partir d’une representation de l’economie, mais que cette representation est unique, en l’occurrence le « vrai modele », et que, sur la base de ce modele, la connaissance des prix suffit a determiner parfaitement l’action individuelle. English Essay? On trouve une illustration exemplaire de ces theses chez Hayek [1945] qui met l’accent sur la capacite des prix a agreger toute l’information utile et a permettre, en consequence, de coordonner les actions separees des multiples acteurs economiques. Essays? Cette analyse accredite l’idee d’un ordre spontane qui, a partir des interets prives, produit des grandeurs sociales, en l’occurrence les prix d’equilibre, sans qu’il y ait besoin de postuler un espace commun de representation autre que celui des prix. Jokes? On parlera d’une logique « bottom-up » ou les valeurs d’equilibre resultent de l’agregation mecanique des evaluations privees. Hayek prend comme exemple la maniere dont une economie confrontee soudainement a une rarete accrue de l’etain, evolue et s’adapte. Essay Malaysian Lifestyle? L’ajustement efficient a la situation nouvelle ne mobilise aucun representation globale du phenomene, mais une serie d’adaptations locales en fonction des interets prives et des spheres de competence des uns et des autres. English Essay Jokes? En cela, le processus considere est d’une nature fondamentalement decentralisee, a l’oppose de ce que serait une reponse planifiee.

Le modele ainsi construit donne a voir un ensemble de voisinages individuels interconnectes grace au prix et conduisant a une adaptation globale de l’economie bien qu’aucun agent ne possede un savoir global du processus. Act Of? Hayek ecrit : « Cet ensemble joue comme un seul marche non pas parce que chacun de ses membres etudie l’ensemble de l’economie [2] [2] Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue. Essay Jokes? , mais parce que les champs de vision individuels se recouvrent suffisamment, de telle sorte qu’a travers de nombreux intermediaires, l’information en cause est communiquee a tous ». Essays On Social Web? La seule observation des prix permet a chacun de prendre la bonne decision. Essay? Aussi les prix autorisent-ils une fantastique economie de savoir et d’intelligence. Essay Lifestyle? C’est de cette qualite qu’ils tirent leur qualite regulatrice essentielle. Jokes? Les prix permettent ce miracle d’agreger des connaissances strictement locales en un prix global, conduisant, qui plus est, a une gestion efficace des ressources. Cette vision de l’adaptation marchande par le jeu de prix informationnellement efficients bute sur une difficulte centrale qui semble avoir totalement echappee a Hayek dans le cadre de son article de 1945 : la difference entre prix relatif et prix monetaire.

Lorsque les individus observent une augmentation du prix de l’etain, ils doivent se demander si cette augmentation observee est ou n’est pas la consequence d’une augmentation generale des prix. Article Essay? Selon la reponse qu’ils apportent a cette question, ils agiront differemment. Jokes? Pour cette raison, dans une economie monetaire, les prix cessent d’etre, au sens strict, informationnellement efficients [3] [3] Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee. Essay About Lifestyle? : a eux seuls, ils ne permettent plus de prendre la bonne decision. Essay? Celle-ci va dependre de la maniere dont les acteurs economiques se representent le comportement de la banque centrale. An Unexpected Act Of Essay? Ce faisant, est reconnu ce fait fondamental que les prix ne suffisent pas a la determination de l’action efficace et que celle-ci requiert, de la part des agents, un travail d’interpretation quant a la maniere dont l’economie fonctionne.

Comme on essay le sait, ce constat a joue un role central dans l’emergence de la nouvelle macroeconomie. Act Of Kindness? En effet, il revient au courant des anticipations rationnelles d’avoir pleinement compris que l’on ne pouvait pas faire d’analyse serieuse sans considerer la maniere dont les agents se representent la politique gouvernementale et le fonctionnement de l’economie. English Jokes? Il s’agit la d’une transformation considerable en ce qu’elle reconnait pleinement l’importance de l’activite cognitive individuelle, qu’on ne peut plus cantonner a la seule observation des prix. Research Technology? Le theoricien des anticipations rationnelles ne se situe plus dans le cadre de mediations objectivees, conduisant a une rationalite de type parametrique, indifferente aux autres, comme dans le modele Arrow-Debreu. English Essay? Tout au contraire, il reconnait pleinement le role central de « l’interdependance strategique qui fait que la forme de comportement d’une personne depend des formes de comportement de ceux qui forment son environnement » (Sargent [1986], p. On Social Web? x). English Essay Jokes? Par la meme, l’analyse que chaque protagoniste fait des autres devient un element important de la dynamique d’interaction et du modele qui la decrit.

Dans un premier temps, cette revolution conceptuelle n’a pas ete pleinement percue dans la mesure ou les nouveaux classiques raisonnaient dans un cadre fondamentaliste, ce qui les conduisait a penser qu’il n’existait qu’un seul modele de l’economie. Essays? Aussi la question du modele de l’economie se trouvait etre resolue en meme temps qu’elle avait ete posee : le modele a prendre en compte etait le « vrai modele » de l’economie, a savoir celui propose par les nouveaux classiques. Essay Jokes? Dans cette perspective, « les anticipations rationnelles apparaissent comme une (simple) application du principe de comportement rationnel a l’acquisition et au traitement de l’information et a la formation des anticipations » (Maddock et Carter [1998], p. Marriage Counseling Essay? 68). Essay Jokes? Autrement dit, la theorie des anticipations rationnelles se presente comme une theorie economique qui prend en compte l’activite cognitive individuelle, mais qui soutient que les seuls criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont suffisants pour en fournir une intelligibilite complete. Essays? Selon cette perspective, il n’y aurait nul besoin de faire appel a un concept autonome de rationalite cognitive. Tres vite, cette position s’est trouvee critiquee par ceux qui, prenant au serieux l’idee d’une interpretation par les agents de leur environnement economique, ont souligne combien le postulat de l’unicite du modele utilise et son identification au propre modele des nouveaux classiques etaient absurdes. English Essay Jokes? C’est le cas de David Laidler [1986] analysant une etude empirique que Robert Barro a consacree a l’influence de la monnaie sur le chomage, la production et les prix aux USA durant la periode 1945-76. Article? Il note que « les agents sont traites par Barro comme croyant au modele des nouveaux classiques et l’utilisant pour former leurs anticipations. Jokes? Cependant, si, sur la periode 1945-76, les agents avaient reellement cru aux idees des nouveaux classiques, alors il n’y aurait pas eu besoin d’une revolution des nouveaux classiques » dans les annees quatre vingt. Essay About Lifestyle? Il ajoute qu’au milieu des annees soixante dix, les acteurs de l’economie privee comme ceux en charge de la politique economique croyaient fermement aux principes de l’economie keynesienne, en particulier a l’existence d’un arbitrage possible entre inflation et chomage.

Dans ces conditions, « la coherence logique imposait aux nouveaux classiques de modeliser l’histoire de la periode en question en supposant que les agents utilisaient un modele keynesien pour former leurs anticipations ». Jokes? Autrement dit, des lors qu’on s’interesse a la maniere dont les agents considerent leur environnement et l’analyse, on 92 ucmj sort de la rationalite instrumentale pure car il faut alors tenir compte du contexte historique et, tout particulierement, de l’etat des savoirs au moment considere. English Jokes? Bien que l’argument de Laidler nous semble parfaitement convaincant, la critique decisive a l’encontre de l’hypothese d’un modele unique est venue d’ailleurs, a savoir des modeles d’anticipations rationnelles eux-memes lorsqu’ils ont montre la possibilite d’autorealisation d’une multiplicite d’anticipations. Research In Electrical Technology? Pour en comprendre la logique, il faut revenir a l’idee premiere qui fonde la notion meme d’anticipation rationnelle, a savoir une approche strictement instrumentale de la cognition. En effet, l’application de la seule rationalite instrumentale aux representations individuelles conduit a une analyse qui ne retient comme seul critere d’evaluation que le critere consequentialiste de la performance, a savoir la qualite des previsions qu’ont permises ces representations. Essay? Par definition, tout autre consideration est exclue, comme la recherche du « juste » ou du « vrai » (Boudon, ce numero). Web? Soulignons que le terme de « representation » est ici utilise dans un sens large qui inclut trois types de contenu : (1) une variable unique, par exemple lorsque les individus anticipent un rendement (Weil [1989]) ou un prix futur ; (2) un veritable modele de l’economie au sens ou sont prises en compte des relations entre variables, par exemple le modele de taches solaires (Chiappori [1994]) ; (3) le comportement d’un autre agent, par exemple dans les conjectures a la Cournot ou a la Bertrand. English Essay? Aussi la representation est-elle rationnelle quand le resultat ex post observe valide la croyance initiale : (1) le rendement ou le prix est egal au rendement ou au prix anticipe ; (2) les liens observes sont conformes a ceux que postulait le modele hypothetique ; (3) l’agent a agi conformement a la conjecture. Essay About? Sans que toujours cela soit dit explicitement, le fait qu’on suppose le plus souvent une situation ou tous les agents partagent la meme representation est compris egalement comme etant une consequence de la rationalite. Essay? Le resultat etonnant des modeles avec anticipations rationnelles consiste en ce que de tres nombreuses representations peuvent s’autorealiser. Counseling Essay? Aussi, obtient-on un tres grand nombre d’equilibres possibles. English? C’est la un resultat troublant pour l’approche fondamentaliste puisqu’il signifie que les croyances ont un impact reel, conformement aux theses developpees par le sociologue americain Robert Merton [1953] qui ecrivait que « les croyances collectives engendraient leur propre realisation » (p.

144). Malaysian? Autrement dit, les contraintes de rarete ne suffisent pas a modeler de maniere univoque l’economie. English Essay? Celle-ci depend egalement de la maniere dont les agents l’interpretent. Technology? Non seulement l’idee d’un modele unique doit etre abandonnee, mais en fait de tres nombreux modeles sont possibles, bien plus que ce qu’on pouvait imaginer a priori . English Essay? Comme l’ecrit Chiappori ([1994], p. Research In Electrical Technology? 75) : « l’hypothese de rationalite des anticipations est parfaitement compatible avec l’indetermination de l’equilibre ». Ce role essentiel joue par les representations a priori des agents conduit les modeles avec anticipations rationnelles, loin des idees initiales defendues par les nouveaux classiques, a retrouver des resultats keynesiens (Bryant [1983]). Essay? Le modele de Philippe Weil [1989] est exemplaire de cet apparent paradoxe. Research Papers? Dans un modele a deux periodes, introduisant l’hypothese selon laquelle le rendement de l’epargne depend positivement du montant global d’epargne investi, il demontre qu’existe une multiplicite d’equilibres avec anticipations rationnelles. English Jokes? Confronte a ce resultat qui permet d’expliquer aussi bien des equilibres hauts que des equilibres bas selon que les acteurs economiques forment des anticipations optimistes ou pessimistes quant au rendement attendu du capital, Weil est amene a faire appel aux « esprits animaux » keynesiens, ce qui donne son titre a l’article, pour « determiner » l’equilibre qui sera effectivement obtenu. Essay? Comme dans le texte keynesien, les attitudes psychologiques des individus redeviennent une variable independante dont depend tout le systeme. English? Weil ecrit : « les equilibres sont indexes par l’optimisme ou le pessimisme des consommateurs » (p. Essay Malaysian? 889).

Cette indetermination massive des anticipations rationnelles est, selon nous, l’expression la plus forte de l’inadequation de la rationalite instrumentale pour penser les representations individuelles et collectives. English? Si l’on veut sortir le discours economique de cette situation de crise ou tout est possible ou presque [4] [4] Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite. An Unexpected Act Of Essay? , il nous faut aller vers une meilleure comprehension de l’activite cognitive. English Jokes? Cela devient une tache essentielle pour l’economiste. Death Penalty Is A Cruel? Telle est la finalite du « tournant cognitif ». Essay? Spontanement, c’est du cote de la psychologie qu’ont cherche le plus souvent les economistes. Research Papers In Electrical? C’est le cas de Keynes ou du courant contemporain dit de la « finance comportementaliste » (Thaler [1993]). Essay Jokes? Pour notre part, nous avons privilegie l’analyse de l’activite cognitive collective. 2 - Pour une theorie de la cognition sociale. Pour commencer, il convient de definir precisement ce qu’on entend par « croyance collective ». Article 92 Ucmj? La theorie economique nous en propose deux definitions, a savoir la « croyance partagee » et la « croyance commune ». Jokes? Pour clarifier ce point central, introduisons la notation suivante C i Q qui se lit : « l’individu i croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Web? On dit alors que Q est de croyance partagee pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a C i Q pour tous les individus i appartenant au groupe G. English Essay? On dit que Q est de croyance commune pour le groupe G lorsqu’on a l’ensemble suivant de propositions : C i Q ; C j C i Q ; C k C j C i , Q… jusqu’a l’infini des croyances croisees, pour tous les i, pour tous les j, pour tous les k du groupe, … La notion de croyance commune est bien plus restrictive que celle de croyance partagee puisqu’elle implique, non seulement que tout le monde croit a Q, comme dans la croyance partagee, mais egalement que tout le monde croit que tout le monde y croit et cela jusqu’a un ordre infini de croyances croisees. Comme on essay about malaysian le voit, ces deux notions de croyance collective renvoient strictement a des croyances individuelles. English Essay Jokes? Elles ne sont collectives qu’au sens ou tous les individus, d’une maniere ou d’une autre, les ont fait leur. Essays On Social Web? Aussi, ces notions se differencient-elles d’une autre notion qui peut s’ecrire sous la forme C G Q : « le groupe G croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». English Jokes? Dans ce cas, on marriage attribue des croyances a une entite abstraite, a savoir le groupe lui-meme.

Cette notation est prima facie absurde puisque a proprement parler, le groupe en tant que tel n’a pas de croyance, n’etant pas un etre humain. Essay Jokes? Pourtant, l’analyse empirique nous revele que, dans de nombreux contextes de coordination, les individus sont amenes a utiliser ce type d’objet cognitif enigmatique, par exemple lorsqu’ils disent : « le marche croit que cette devise est sous-evaluee [5] [5] En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions. Death And Unusual? ». Essay? Comment expliquer ce fait etrange ? Repondre a cette question est l’objet de la presente section. Essays On Social Web? Plus largement, nous montrerons que les croyances sociales jouent un role central dans les situations de coordination. English Essay Jokes? Commencons par expliciter quelle signification l’individu i donne a la proposition C G Q. 2.1 - Definition de la croyance sociale. A priori , on marriage peut en concevoir deux. English Jokes? Selon la premiere interpretation, notee (i1), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie s’il croit qu’une grande partie [6] [6] Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande. Marriage Counseling Essay? du groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie. English Essay? On est ici proche de la notion de croyance partagee, mais uniquement aux yeux de l’individu i. Counseling? Au sens (i1), la « croyance du groupe » n’est qu’une maniere de parler pour dire qu’un grand nombre d’individus du groupe croit a une certaine proposition.

Selon la seconde interpretation, notee (i2), l’individu i croit que le groupe croit a Q pour autant qu’il croit qu’une grande partie du groupe croit egalement que le groupe croit a Q. English Jokes? Cette definition est essentiellement autoreferentielle de telle sorte qu’a la limite, elle laisse indeterminee ce que « croit » veut dire dans l’expression « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». Article 92 Ucmj? Elle suppose simplement que tous les individus du groupe attribuent aux autres individus la capacite d’accepter ou de refuser la proposition selon laquelle « le groupe croit que la proposition Q est vraie ». English Jokes? Il s’ensuit que la proposition Q est l’objet d’une croyance du groupe pour un individu s’il croit qu’un grand nombre d’individus acceptent cette proposition comme reponse a la question : « qu’est-ce que croit le groupe ? ». Article 92 Ucmj? Ou encore, on essay a C i C G Q si et seulement si C i C j C G Q pour presque tous les individus j du groupe. Counseling Essay? Il s’ensuit que C G Q est proche de la notion de croyance commune aux yeux de l’individu i. La difference entre ces deux interpretations est tres importante. English? Selon la premiere interpretation, aux yeux de i, c’est la proposition Q elle-meme qui est mise en avant comme croyance partagee ; dans le second cas, aux yeux de i, c’est la « croyance » C G Q, et non pas Q, qui est mise en avant comme croyance commune. Death Punishment Essay? Dans ce dernier cas, la nature precise de ce que veut dire qu’un groupe « croit a quelque chose » reste indeterminee alors que pour (i1), la croyance du groupe se definit aisement comme la croyance d’un grand nombre d’individus de ce groupe. English Essay Jokes? Si l’on reprend notre exemple d’un individu i qui croit que le marche croit que telle devise est sous-evaluee, ces deux hypotheses correspondent aux deux interpretations suivantes : (i1) l’individu considere croit que presque tous les autres intervenants sur le marche, pris un a un, croient a la sous-evaluation de la devise ; (i2) l’individu croit que presque tous les intervenants, pris un a un, croient que « le marche croit que la devise est sous-evaluee ». Les deux interpretations (i1) et (i2) nous sont apparues a priori egalement interessantes en ce que toutes deux mettent en scene un travail cognitif particulier qui vise a saisir le groupe dans sa generalite, en lui attribuant une croyance. Essay? C’est la, selon nous, une propriete fondamentale. English? Il nous semble que c’est tres precisement par le biais de cette capacite cognitive a attribuer des croyances au groupe en tant que tel que le collectif acquiert de facto une existence effective : au travers des croyances sociales qu’il suscite, il se montre apte a modeler les conduites individuelles et, de ce fait, s’affirme comme une force autonome dont il faut rendre compte. Death Penalty Punishment Essay? Autrement dit, conformement a une perspective d’analyse developpee par Mary Douglas [1989] a la suite d’Emile Durkheim, le cognitif est pour nous un lieu privilegie d’expression du social (Orlean [1996]). English? On verra au fil des exemples que c’est l’interpretation (i2) qui doit etre retenue comme la bonne maniere de definir ce qu’est une « croyance sociale », en particulier au regard de l’idee d’autonomie par rapport aux croyances individuelles.

Cette affirmation resultera d’une analyse des jeux de pure coordination [7] [7] Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii. About Malaysian? , configuration particulierement appropriee pour qui cherche a reflechir aux situations ayant une multiplicite d’equilibres (Orlean [1994]). English Essay Jokes? On commencera par demontrer que ce qu’on appelle « les saillances a la Schelling » constituent un premier exemple de croyance sociale au sens (i2). 2.2 - Un exemple de croyance sociale : les saillances a la Schelling. Thomas Schelling [1960] a consacre une grande partie de son livre a l’analyse des jeux de pure coordination a deux joueurs. Act Of Essay? Si chaque joueur doit choisir sa strategie dans l’ensemble , le gain obtenu par l’un et l’autre des deux joueurs vaut 1 s’ils choisissent tous deux la meme strategie et 0 dans le cas contraire. Essay? Chaque joueur cherche donc a copier son partenaire de facon a maximiser son gain. Essays On Social? Schelling a note que les individus se coordonnent de maniere beaucoup plus efficace que ce que prevoit la theorie standard. English Essay Jokes? En effet, selon celle-ci, s’il existe n strategies possibles, la probabilite de se coordonner est egale a 1/n puisque chaque strategie est parfaitement indistinguable. An Unexpected Act Of Kindness? Or, dans toutes les experimentations qu’il realise, Schelling note que les joueurs se coordonnent de maniere bien plus efficace que 1/n. English? Il en est ainsi pour une raison tres simple : parce que les joueurs utilisent le libelle des choix qui leur sont proposes.

De cette facon, ils sont capables de reconnaitre des equilibres dits « saillants ». Essays? On est ainsi confronte a une double etrangete. English Essay Jokes? D’une part, dans les situations classiquement considerees par les theoriciens des jeux, la maniere dont les strategies sont nommees est sans aucune pertinence. About Malaysian? Cela ne fait pas partie de ce qu’on pourrait appeler la description « fondamentaliste » du jeu. English? Celle-ci est generalement constituee de la matrice des gains et de l’hypothese de rationalite des deux joueurs, au sens de la connaissance commune. Papers In Electrical Technology? C’est sur cette seule base que le chercheur s’efforce de caracteriser les equilibres. English Jokes? Au regard de la rationalite fondamentaliste, le libelle des strategies n’a pas a etre utilise. Research Papers? Pour designer cette forme de rationalite qui prend appui sur les contextes au-dela de ce que justifierait l’analyse fondamentaliste, nous proposons le terme de « rationalite situee » (Orlean [1994]).

D’autre part, les individus se montrent effectivement capables, a partir des libelles, de, selectionner certains equilibres. Essay Jokes? Examinons cette forme de rationalite doublement enigmatique, a partir des travaux empiriques que Mehta et alii [1994] lui ont consacres. Ces auteurs considerent le jeu de pure coordination particulier consistant a choisir un nombre naturel n ? 1. In Electrical Technology? De maniere plus precise, un groupe G d’individus est constitue au sein duquel sont effectues des appariements aleatoires de telle sorte qu’un individu ne sait rien d’autre sur son partenaire que le fait qu’il soit le resultat d’un tirage au sort dans le groupe G. English? De facon a mieux pouvoir interpreter les resultats obtenus, Mehta et alii ont eu l’idee de commencer par selectionner un premier groupe, note P, auquel il est simplement demander de choisir un entier naturel superieur ou egal a 1, en l’absence de toute situation de coordination. Death Is A Cruel And Unusual Punishment Essay? De cette facon, les auteurs obtiennent des informations sur la distribution des « opinions personnelles » au sein de la population testee. Essay Jokes? Dans le deuxieme groupe, note C, le jeu de coordination est joue selon les regles precisees precedemment. Penalty Cruel? Quels sont les resultats ? Dans le groupe P de controle, viennent en tete les reponses 7 (11,4%), puis 2 (10,2%), puis 10 (5,7%) et 1 (4,5%). Jokes? Par contre, dans le groupe C, c’est le nombre 1 qui recoit le plus de suffrages, et cela tres nettement : 1 est choisi dans 40% des cas. Marriage Essay? Il est suivi par le nombre 7 dans 14,4%. Essay? Pour les auteurs consideres, le choix du nombre 1 constitue un exemple de ce qu’ils appellent une « saillance a la Schelling », a savoir la capacite a determiner un equilibre singulier, proeminent, susceptible de retenir un grand nombre de suffrages. Act Of? Ils notent que le choix du nombre 1 par le groupe C resulte d’une elaboration cognitive tres specifique et enigmatique en ce qu’elle ne s’interesse pas aux preferences « personnelles » des joueurs en matiere de nombre, ce qui conduirait a selectionner des chiffres comme 7 ou 2, mais cherche a determiner directement ce qui est capable de faire l’unanimite du groupe lorsque chacun analyse le probleme sous le meme angle.

Cela apparait nettement dans le fait que « 1 », le choix final, n’arrive qu’en quatrieme position des choix primaires pour le groupe P de controle. English Jokes? Ce n’est pas en tant que nombre apprecie des joueurs qu’il est retenu. Death Is A And Unusual Punishment Essay? Le raisonnement est tout autre. English Essay Jokes? Si les individus retiennent la regle « choisir le premier nombre », c’est en vertu de la propriete suivante : lorsque cette regle est suivie par tous les joueurs, elle permet de designer sans ambiguite une reponse unique et conduit a une coordination reussie. Act Of Essay? C’est tres precisement ce que Schelling avait mis en lumiere. Essay Jokes? Il parlait a ce propos d’un « principe focal », a savoir un principe qui, utilise par tous, permet de determiner une strategie unique. Counseling Essay? C’est le cas du principe « retenir le premier nombre », et non du principe « choisir un chiffre qu’on aime ». English Jokes? Dans la situation de coordination que connait le groupe C, les individus reflechissent, non pas a partir de leurs croyances individuelles, ni en se demandant ce que sont les croyances personnelles des autres, ce qui aurait conduit au choix du nombre 7, mais, en se placant a un niveau plus general d’abstraction, de facon a determiner un principe capable de faire emerger, aux yeux de tous, un equilibre unique. Article 92 Ucmj Essay? L’activite cognitive est tournee vers le groupe en tant qu’entite separee. English Essay Jokes? Elle tente de produire un repere commun sur une base non-cooperative.

On trouve ici un premier exemple de « croyance sociale » au sens (i2). Marriage Essay? Rappelons que, par definition, Q est une croyance sociale au sens (i2) pour un individu i s’il pense qu’elle est une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les individus du groupe. English Essay? Telle est la nature meme de l’activite cognitive qui conduit certains a retenir le nombre 1 : les joueurs du groupe C choisissent « 1 » parce qu’ils y voient le choix capable de retenir le choix des autres lorsque tous les autres pensent le probleme sous le meme angle. Marriage Counseling Essay? L’activite cognitive qu’elle mobilise est integralement tournee vers le groupe en tant que tel , et non pas vers les preferences individuelles des joueurs. English Essay Jokes? Dans cette derniere hypothese, on penalty and unusual obtiendrait ce qu’on a appele une croyance sociale au sens (i1), qui conduit au nombre 7 lorsque tous les joueurs sont bien informes des opinions personnelles des membres du groupe telles que nous les revele le groupe P de controle. Essay Jokes? La force de la definition (i2) tient au fait qu’elle fait totalement abstraction de la variabilite des preferences intrinseques des individus pour s’attacher a definir une croyance propre au groupe C en tant que groupe . Research? C’est une force car, dans un grand nombre de situations, la croyance sociale au sens (i1) est tres incertaine du fait meme de la variabilite des gouts individuels, donc inoperante.

Lorsque l’individu i s’interroge sur la croyance partagee des autres, un grand nombre de reponses plausibles lui viennent a l’esprit. Essay Jokes? Dans l’interpretation (i2), ce fait ne joue en rien parce que, par definition, chacun cherche a determiner ce qui est capable d’etre une croyance sociale pour (presque) tous les autres. Essays On Social Web? Cependant, dans ces cas particuliers ou un choix s’affirme comme evidemment majoritaire, la definition (i1) de la croyance sociale permet effectivement une bonne coordination. Jokes? On dira qu’on a affaire a un « stereotype ». Penalty Is A Cruel? Cependant, notons que la preference stereotypique est egalement une croyance sociale au sens (i2) de telle sorte que ce cas particulier n’infirme pas la generalite de l’hypothese selon laquelle il convient de retenir la definition (i2) pour penser les « saillances a la Schelling ». 2.3 - Rationalite situee et role des contextes. Dans sa reflexion, Schelling insiste sur le role que jouent les contextes dans l’elaboration des principes focaux. English Essay Jokes? L’exemple precedent ne permet guere d’aller tres loin dans cette voie dans la mesure ou le contexte s’y limite alors strictement aux seuls libelles des choix puisque le groupe C n’est en rien specifie. Kindness? L’exemple suivant que l’on doit a David Kreps ([1990], p. English? 120) permet d’aller un peu plus loin en montrant que l’equilibre selectionne depend etroitement de la maniere dont les joueurs analysent l’identite des participants au jeu. Research In Electrical? Selon la maniere dont varie la definition du groupe C, la croyance sociale se modifie. Kreps considere le jeu de coordination [8] [8] Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different. Essay Jokes? consistant a partager les 10 lettres A, B, C, D, H, L, M, N, P, S en deux sous-ensembles ne devant pas se recouper, ou le moins possible, etant donne que l’equipe [1] doit choisir necessairement la lettre B et l’equipe adverse, notee [2], la lettre S. Research In Electrical? Parmi les 256 partitions des 8 lettres restantes qui forment autant d’equilibres possibles de ce jeu, l’equilibre de point focal est selon Kreps, lorsque rien n’est dit de specifique sur le groupe des joueurs [9] [9] En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait. English? , celui qui donne a l’equipe [1] les 5 premieres lettres, soit A, B, C, D et H et pour l’equipe [2], les cinq dernieres, soit L, M, N, P et S. Article Essay? Il s’agit la d’une nouvelle illustration de la saillance a la Schelling. Jokes? Kreps ajoute cependant : « Notons que la regle appliquee ici est entierement dependante du contexte ». In Electrical? Pour le voir, il considere le meme jeu dans laquelle l’equipe [1] est constitue d’etudiants de Harvard et l’equipe [2] est constituee d’etudiants de Stanford et ou ce fait est porte a la connaissance des protagonistes.

10 villes leur sont proposees : Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphie et San Francisco. Essay? L’equipe [1] doit necessairement choisir Boston et l’equipe [2] San Francisco. On Social Web? Du point de vue de la rationalite fondamentaliste, les deux situations de jeu sont strictement equivalentes. English Jokes? Pourtant, dans a peu pres 75 % des situations nous dit Kreps (p. On Social? 121), les etudiants d’Harvard choisissent Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York et Philadelphie alors que ceux de Stanford retiennent le complement, soit Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles et San Francisco. Essay? Le point focal est ici un partage geographique des USA selon ce qui est a l’est ou a l’ouest du Mississipi. Counseling Essay? Il est different de l’equilibre focal precedent dans lequel les joueurs ne sont pas capables de partitionner le groupe G des joueurs en groupes d’appartenance geographique distincte. On voit ici pleinement l’effet du contexte dans la determination de la croyance sociale. English Jokes? Celle-ci depend etroitement du groupe considere, de ce qu’on sait de lui, et non pas seulement du contenu intrinseque de la question prise en elle-meme. Research Papers In Electrical Technology? Ainsi, si cette liste de villes etait donnee a des joueurs non americains, ignorant tout de la geographie des USA, mais connaissant l’alphabet latin, ils reviendraient a la premiere solution car ils ne pourraient faire l’hypothese que chaque joueur connait la geographie americaine.

Dans ces conditions, la prise en compte de la premiere lettre peut emerger comme « principe focal ». English Jokes? Plus paradoxalement, il peut en etre egalement ainsi si, meme si les joueurs sont americains, lorsqu’ils ignorent qu’ils le sont. Essays On Social Web? Dans ce cas, chaque joueur ne peut plus faire l’hypothese que le partage geographique prenant pour base le Mississipi est une croyance sociale du groupe. English Essay? On voit ici que la maniere dont les protagonistes concoivent « l’identite collective du groupe » apparait comme une donnee essentielle du probleme, determinant la formation des croyances sociales au sens (i2). About? Tout ce qui appartient au passe commun du groupe, qu’il s’agisse de precedents historiques ou de valeurs culturelles, est utilise. Jokes? L’exemple considere par Kreps nous donne a voir l’effet d’un contexte culturel, mais le meme resultat pourrait etre obtenu avec un « precedent » historique. Un bon exemple du role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des croyances sociales nous est donne par les marches financiers. An Unexpected Kindness? Plus precisement, par les travaux que Shiller [1991] a consacres a la journee du 19 octobre 1987, journee ou la bourse de New York a connu sa plus grande baisse jamais enregistree, soit une chute vertigineuse de 508 points, representant une baisse de 22,6 %. English Jokes? Comment expliquer une baisse de telle ampleur ? Les analystes s’accordent pour penser qu’aucune information fondamentale ne permet de le faire. An Unexpected Act Of Essay? Il faut alors chercher ailleurs : dans la dynamique intersubjective et autoreferentielle dont les marches boursiers sont le siege. English Essay Jokes? Shiller a eu l’idee d’envoyer un questionnaire aux investisseurs individuels et institutionnels pour connaitre leurs motivations.

Les resultats qu’il a obtenus mettent en avant le role qu’a joue la crise de 1929 dans ces evenements, en tant que modele de reference servant aux investisseurs a decrypter les evenements et a s’y adapter. Marriage Counseling Essay? Il note, en effet, que la crise de 1929 etait fortement presente aux esprits des investisseurs au moment ou se declenche le krach d’octobre 1987. Essay? 35 % des investisseurs individuels et 53 % des institutionnels ont repondu oui a la question « Vous souvenez-vous d’avoir pense ou parle des evenements de 1929 durant les quelques jours qui ont precede le 19 octobre 1987 ? ». An Unexpected Essay? Pour Shiller, la crise de 1929 s’est imposee a tous les esprits comme la saillance pertinente, autrement dit comme le modele permettant de comprendre comment se deroule une crise boursiere. English Essay Jokes? Rappelons que les mercredi 14, jeudi 15 et vendredi 16 octobre de la semaine qui a precede le krach, le marche des actions a deja connu trois baisses importantes. Is A Essay? Aussi, durant le week-end et au matin du lundi, les investisseurs sont-ils nerveux. Essay? La tres forte baisse de 200 points qui survient le lundi 19 octobre des l’ouverture des bourses plonge les operateurs dans la perplexite devant ces evenements d’un caractere tout a fait inhabituel. Article Essay? Comment vont reagir le marche et les autres operateurs ? Dans de telles circonstances, que faut-il attendre du marche ? Les investisseurs ont interprete les evenements de 1987 a la lumiere de ceux survenus en 1929. English Essay Jokes? Bien evidemment, la comparaison n’avait pas de quoi les rassurer. Article 92 Ucmj? Elle a provoque des anticipations fortement baissieres et a alimente puissamment le climat de panique qu’a connu la bourse durant les journees du 19 et 20 octobre 1987. English Jokes? Pour Shiller, on penalty and unusual punishment ne peut comprendre la surreaction du marche sans integrer a l’analyse le role qu’a joue la saillance « crise de 1929 » comme prototype de la crise boursiere. Jokes? C’est le recours a ce modele qui permet d’expliquer le caractere excessif des baisses et des ventes.

Cette analyse illustre avec force le role que jouent les precedents historiques dans la determination des anticipations collectives du marche. 2.4 - L’autonomie des croyances sociales. Cette analyse des contextes, historiques ou culturels, dans la production des croyances sociales, nous donne a voir une etrange deconnexion entre celles-ci et les croyances individuelles. Act Of? Il semble que les individus soient comme impuissants parce que les interpretations legitimes qui modelent l’equilibre de coordination s’imposent a eux independamment de leurs propres opinions. Jokes? Ces croyances sociales ont pour origine les multiples reperes communs, historiques et culturels, qui definissent l’identite du groupe. About Malaysian Lifestyle? Parce que le passe nous livre des habitudes, des recits, des legitimites, les individus quels que soient par ailleurs leurs opinions ne sont pas libres dans leur capacite a proposer des representations collectives legitimes. English Essay? Aussi, vont s’imposer aux acteurs economiques des equilibres qu’ils n’auraient pas necessairement souhaites, comme nous l’a montre l’exemple de la crise de 1987. Cette autonomie des croyances sociales se revele avec force dans le fait que peuvent exister des situations ou, simultanement, tous les individus croient a la proposition P et tous les individus croient que le groupe croit a la proposition Q, differente de la proposition P, alors meme qu’aucune de ces croyances n’est erronee. Death Is A? Ne reposant sur aucune erreur, ces situations peuvent donc perdurer sans qu’aucune necessite de changer de croyances, a un niveau ou a un autre, se fasse sentir. English Essay? Autrement dit, cela signifie que l’on peut avoir C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ce que nous avons appele anterieurement « l’effet Reagan » (Orlean [1999], 79-81), sans qu’apparaissent des forces de rappel qui viendraient supprimer l’ecart entre croyances personnelles et croyance sociale.

Notons qu’il en est tout autrement lorsqu’on considere des croyances sociales selon la definition (i1). 92 Ucmj Essay? Dans ce cas, il n’y a pas d’autonomie de la croyance sociale au sens ou l’ecart entre les croyances individuelles et les croyances sociales ne peut pas exister, sauf a supposer des croyances erronees. English Essay? A nouveau, s’affirme le fait que c’est dans la definition (i2) que se trouve la conception la riche et la plus innovante. Essays? Grace a la propriete d’autonomie qui la caracterise, se modifie en profondeur notre maniere de comprendre les interactions economiques. Essay Jokes? Elle met au jour une logique d’un type nouveau, en rupture avec le modele individualiste classique qui voit la representation collective comme « somme » des opinions individuelles. Essay? Desormais, deux niveaux et deux logiques coexistent dont on english jokes doit analyser l’articulation. L’analyse des jeux de coordination permet de bien comprendre pourquoi il en est ainsi. Technology? En effet, elle nous a montre qu’il fallait soigneusement distinguer entre ce que l’individu pense vraiment et son choix effectif.

Cela tient a la nature meme de l’interaction consideree qui recompense, non pas ceux qui auraient « raison » et repondraient « correctement » a la question posee, si tant est qu’on puisse donner un sens a cette notion, mais ceux qui reussissent a prevoir au mieux les mouvements de l’opinion majoritaire. English? Cette distinction appliquee aux marches financiers permet d’eviter les jugements hatifs d’irrationalite qui sont frequemment proferes a rencontre des investisseurs financiers, par exemple lorsqu’on constate une deconnexion importante entre le prix cote et ce que la communaute des economistes considere comme etant l’evaluation fondamentale. Act Of Kindness Essay? Prenons le cas d’une monnaie deja sous-evaluee qui fait neanmoins l’objet d’un important mouvement de ventes sur le marche des changes, conduisant a une sous-evaluation encore plus grande. Essay? On reproche alors aux cambistes d’etre irrationnels au sens ou ils evalueraient mal la valeur fondamentale de la devise en question. An Unexpected Act Of Essay? Une telle hypothese ne tient pas. English Jokes? Elle n’est d’ailleurs pas necessaire.

Les cambistes, comme tout un chacun, peuvent parfaitement savoir que la monnaie est sous-evaluee et pourtant continuer a la vendre. An Unexpected Act Of Kindness Essay? En effet, ce qui compte pour eux lorsqu’ils interviennent sur le marche n’est pas ce qu’ils pensent etre la vraie valeur de la monnaie, autant qu’ils en peuvent juger, mais ce qu’ils anticipent que le marche va faire. Essay? Sur un marche, on essays on social web fait du profit quand on essay reussit a prevoir correctement l’evolution de l’opinion du groupe. Papers In Electrical? Telle est la regle du jeu. English? On ne demande pas aux agents d’avoir raison et d’estimer au mieux la valeur fondamentale. Marriage Counseling? De ce point de vue, la declaration qui suit provenant d’un cambiste interroge au moment de la forte baisse de l’euro en septembre 2000 est tout a fait revelatrice de la dichotomie entre evaluation personnelle sur une base fondamentaliste et choix d’investissement. English Essay? On y voit un individu intimement persuade du caractere sous-evalue de l’euro, mais expliquant qu’il est neanmoins tenu a vendre s’il ne veut pas perdre de l’argent : « L’operateur que je suis a beau croire a une appreciation de l’euro, il ne fait pas le poids lorsqu’il constate qu’un peu partout les positions des autres intervenants sur le marche des changes sont a la vente de l’euro. An Unexpected Act Of Essay? Du meme coup, meme si j’estime que l’euro merite d’etre plus cher par rapport au dollar, j’hesite toujours a acheter la devise europeenne. English? En effet, si je suis le seul acheteur d’euros face a cinquante intervenants vendeurs, je suis sur d’y laisser des plumes… Je ne fais pas forcement ce que je crois intimement, mais plutot ce que je crois que fera globalement le marche qui in death is a cruel and unusual essay fine l’emportera.

Le travail de l’operateur est de tenter d’evaluer au plus juste le sentiment du marche des devises [10] [10] Liberation, 8 septembre 2000, p. English Essay? 24. Death Penalty And Unusual Punishment? . Jokes? » Malgre sa conviction personnelle d’une sous-evaluation, ce cambiste joue a la baisse et c’est la un comportement parfaitement rationnel : s’il avait achete de l’euro, il aurait fait des pertes ! Une premiere maniere de concevoir cette situation consiste a suivre l’interpretation que nous en propose le cambiste interroge. Essays On Social Web? Il oppose deux evaluations, l’evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche pensee sous sa forme (i1), i.e . English? comme etant la croyance du plus grand nombre des cambistes. Kindness? Dans un tel cadre, l’individu interroge justifie son suivisme par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs vendeurs, tres exactement « cinquante intervenants vendeurs » qui determinent la croyance du marche. English Jokes? Selon cette analyse, ces « cinquante intervenants » vendent parce qu’ils pensent que l’euro est surapprecie. On Social? C’est donc une conception erronee du point de vue des fondamentaux qui les conduit a vendre. Essay? Face a ce fait accompli, notre cambiste n’a plus aucun choix. Web? Il ne peut que se plier au diktat inadequat de l’opinion majoritaire. English Essay? Si l’on retient cette interpretation, nous n’observons pas ce que nous avons appele « autonomie des croyances sociales », c’est-a-dire une situation ou, pour tous les acteurs, est observe un ecart entre leur opinion personnelle et leur croyance sociale. Malaysian Lifestyle? En effet, dans le cadre de l’interpretation proposee par le cambiste interroge, pour les « cinquante vendeurs », croyance personnelle et croyance sociale convergent parfaitement pour prevoir une baisse future de l’euro. Essay Jokes? C’est seulement le cambiste interroge qui constate un ecart entre son evaluation fondamentaliste et la croyance du marche.

Cette absence d’autonomie n’a rien d’etonnant. Essay About Lifestyle? Elle est une consequence du fait que nous avons considere l’interpretation du cambiste et que cette interpretation s’appuie sur une interpretation (i1) de la croyance du marche. Cette interpretation n’est pas necessairement fausse. English? Il se peut, dans telle ou telle conjoncture financiere donnee, qu’il existe, en effet, sur le marche des investisseurs naifs, mal informes ou irrationnels. Death Is A Cruel And Unusual Punishment? C’est la une question de fait. English Essay Jokes? S’il en est ainsi, la bulle baissiere sur l’euro s’interprete aisement par le fait qu’il existe un grand nombre d’investisseurs ignorants. Essays? Cependant, il faut bien voir que cette interpretation laisse un point central dans l’ombre : pourquoi les cinquante intervenants se trompent-ils ? Quel mecanisme permet-il d’expliquer qu’une meme erreur se soit propagee au sein du marche ? Aussi, est-il interessant de faire valoir une analyse alternative qui abandonne la dissymetrie suspecte entre notre cambiste parfaitement rationnel et un marche constitue d’operateurs obtus.

Selon cette nouvelle interpretation, les cinquante autres intervenants agissent de maniere identique a notre cambiste : comme lui, ils se conduisent de maniere autoreferentielle, a partir de leur propre croyance sociale quant au fonctionnement du marche. Essay? Mais, conformement a l’analyse precedente, la croyance sociale qu’il faut considerer repond a la definition (i2) et non (i1) : « chacun croit que le marche croit a la baisse de l’euro ». Essay? Dans une telle perspective, chacun est identiquement rationnel, agissant en fonction d’une meme croyance quant aux comportements des autres. Essay Jokes? Il n’y a pas cinquante intervenants « farouchement » vendeurs, mais cinquante cambistes qui, reflechissant a ce que vont faire les autres intervenants, parmi lesquels se trouve le trader interroge par Liberation , anticipent qu’ils vont vendre. Essay About Malaysian Lifestyle? Si on english essay jokes les interrogeait, ils feraient remarquer a leur tour qu’il ne sert a rien d’aller a contre courant d’un marche aussi determine dans son aveuglement. Act Of Essay? Et ils auraient raison. English Essay Jokes? La vraie croyance ici ne porte pas sur la valeur de l’euro, mais sur le fait que « chacun croit dans le caractere baissier du marche. Article? » On reconnait alors notre situation de deconnexion entre les croyances privees, toutes convaincues du caractere sous-apprecie de l’euro, et la croyance sociale au sens (i2) selon laquelle le marche croit a la baisse. English Essay Jokes? On a C i P pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou P est la proposition « l’euro est sous-apprecie » et simultanement C i C G Q pour tous les individus i du groupe, ou Q est la proposition « l’euro est surapprecie ». Act Of Essay? Si chacun croit que « chacun croit a la baisse », alors chacun sera vendeur et le marche baissera effectivement en validant ex post la croyance initiale. Essay? On retrouve le phenomene de prophetie autorealisatrice. Essays On Social? Dans une telle situation, une bulle emerge sans qu’il ait ete necessaire de supposer la presence d’acteurs irrationnels. English Essay Jokes? Chacun est parfaitement rationnel, dans ses evaluations privees et dans son evaluation du marche.

Il n’est pas besoin de supposer des evaluations erronees. Papers In Electrical Technology? Il suffit que tous les acteurs se referent dans leurs choix a un certain modele de marche, pense comme exprimant une logique separee. Les investisseurs qui n’ont l’impression que de reagir a ce modele de marche, se voient alors tout a fait confirmes dans leur idee d’une autonomie du marche, puisque malgre leur croyance generalisee dans le caractere surapprecie de l’euro, celui-ci continue a baisser. Essay? Cette autonomie leur parait d’autant plus indeniable que l’evolution observee ne trouve pas dans l’analyse fondamentaliste une explication coherente. Death And Unusual Punishment Essay? Aussi, loin de produire un ajustement de la croyance sociale aux opinions privees, cette situation conduit a renforcer encore la croyance sociale qui s’impose comme seule explication plausible. English Essay? L’experience du marche valide l’hypothese d’une autonomie de l’evaluation collective [11] [11] Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations. And Unusual? . Essay Jokes? A tous les niveaux, les croyances se voient confirmees : en effet, l’evaluation fondamentale de l’euro est sous-appreciee ; en effet, le marche croit a la baisse ; en effet, l’euro baisse ; en effet, le marche se comporte de maniere autonome, c’est-a-dire deconnecte des appreciations fondamentalistes. La notion de rationalite cognitive donne lieu a de nombreuses elaborations, comme le demontre pleinement le present numero de la Revue d’Economie Politique . 92 Ucmj Essay? Il faut s’en rejouir. English Essay Jokes? Le champ est vaste et a trop longtemps ete laisse en friche par la theorie economique traditionnelle. Essay? Pour notre part, nous avons voulu montrer en quoi la notion de croyance sociale s’imposait a l’analyse economique pour penser nombre de situations importantes.

Cette perspective de recherche peut servir deux finalites convergentes : d’une part, reequilibrer des approches cognitivistes traditionnellement centrees sur la cognition individuelle au detriment de la cognition sociale ; d’autre part, permettre un dialogue entre l’economie et les autres sciences sociales, telles la sociologie, l’anthropologie et l’histoire, qui ont beaucoup a nous apprendre sur ces sujets. Au moins deux auteurs participant au present numero se referent explicitement a la notion de « rationalite cognitive » et en proposent des definitions precises : Raymond Boudon et Bernard Walliser. Dans la traduction francaise proposee par La Revue Francaise d’Economie , on jokes trouve ecrit : « etudie son propre environnement » la ou, dans la version anglaise, on marriage essay trouve « survey the english essay jokes whole field ». Research Papers In Electrical Technology? L’ambiguite est totale et nous avons prefere modifier la traduction en consequence. Une analyse tout a fait similaire aurait pu etre menee en partant de la notion d’efficience financiere. English Jokes? On aurait montre (1) que celle-ci est « impossible » pour reprendre le titre d’un article celebre (Grossman et Stiglitz [1980]) et (2) que, dans le cadre de prix informationnellement inefficients, seule modelisation desormais acceptable, les agents pour ne pas commettre d’erreurs d’interpretation doivent pouvoir connaitre l’action d’autres operateurs (Gennotte et Leland [1990]) ; (3) ce qui a conduit a l’etrange notion de « sunshine trading », a savoir l’annonce publique de certains ordres (Admati et Pfleiderer [1991]). Essays Web? Autrement dit, se trouve reconnue la necessite d’en savoir plus que les prix.

CQFD. Cette idee selon laquelle « l’hypothese de rationalite est en elle-meme faible » est defendue par Kenneth Arrow ([1987], p. English Essay? 206). Essays On Social Web? Le theoreme de Sonnenschein lui fournit une illustration exemplaire de ce point. English? Mais les exemples ne manquent pas. Essay Lifestyle? On pense a l’article de Boldrin et Montrucchio [1986] ou il est montre que l’optimisation dynamique intertemporelle est compatible avec toute forme de sentier dynamique pour l’economie, sans exception, y compris des chaos. English Essay? Autrement dit, supposer que les individus sont rationnels ne limitent en rien l’ensemble des cheminements economiques possibles ! En fait, entrent dans cette categorie toutes les propositions dans lesquelles on about malaysian attribue des qualites a des objets collectifs, par exemple « les voitures allemandes sont meilleures que les voitures francaises » ou « le mark est une monnaie forte ». Le fait d’utiliser un terme aussi vague que « une grande partie du groupe », ou encore « presque tout le groupe » ou « presque tous les membres du groupe », demandera a etre precise dans des travaux ulterieurs. Jokes? Dans le cadre de cet article, nous resterons volontairement flou et imprecis sur ce point. Act Of Essay? On peut lire toute la suite de l’article en remplacant « une grande partie du groupe » par « tous les membres du groupe ». Pour plus de precision, se reporter a Mehta et alii [1994].

Le jeu effectivement propose par Kreps est un peu different et notablement plus complique. Essay? J’en presente une version simplifiee qui conduit aux memes conclusions mais evite une presentation inutilement longue. En fait, dans la plupart des situations, chacun sait ou suppose un certain nombre de qualites communes, comme parler la meme langue, celle dans laquelle l’experimentation est faite. Liberation , 8 septembre 2000, p. Article 92 Ucmj Essay? 24. Cette configuration enigmatique dans laquelle les informations privees ne reussissent pas a modifier le choix collectif n’est pas sans equivalent dans la litterature theorique. English Essay? Dans les situations de type « electronic mail game » (Rubinstein [1989]), on essay about malaysian lifestyle observe des blocages similaires au sens ou l’echange de messages entre deux individus, aussi nombreux soientils, ne reussit pas a engendrer la connaissance commune necessaire a une certaine action des deux joueurs. Essay? Les cascades informationnelles ont egalement cette propriete.

Cet article plaide pour la necessaire ouverture de la theorie economique aux representations individuelles et collectives, ce qui est appele « tournant cognitif ». On Social? Dans une premiere partie, on english essay jokes montre que la rationalite instrumentale ne fournit pas un cadre adequat pour penser cette activite cognitive. An Unexpected Essay? Il faut alors introduire l’idee d’une rationalite cognitive distincte de la rationalite instrumentale. English Jokes? Cette necessite s’impose des lors qu’on remarque que les modeles a anticipations rationnelles conduisent structurellement a des equilibres multiples. Death And Unusual Punishment Essay? Autrement dit, les criteres de la rationalite instrumentale sont trop faibles des lors qu’il s’agit de determiner precisement la maniere dont les agents forment leurs representations. English Essay Jokes? Dans une seconde partie, on kindness essay avance la notion de « croyance sociale » pour penser ces representations collectives.

D’une part, on essay montre que leur formation depend etroitement des contextes culturels et historiques. In Electrical Technology? D’autre part, on english essay etablit que ces croyances sociales ne peuvent pas etre pensees comme la « somme » des croyances privees : celles-la sont dotees d’une forte autonomie par rapport a celles-ci. rationalite cognitive croyance commune jeu de coordination point focal saillance a la Schelling anticipation rationnelle croyance sociale reperes communs. Summary This article argues for essays, the need to essay, integrate beliefs the essay about malaysian lifestyle individual and english collective levels in article 92 ucmj essay economic theory, something which is essay jokes, referred to essays on social web, as a cognitive turning point. English? In the research papers first section of the english essay article, we show that instrumental rationality does not offer an papers in electrical, adequate framework for english essay, analysing this sort of papers, cognitive activity.

Rather, what is jokes, needed is essays on social web, a notion of jokes, cognitive rationality which is papers in electrical, distinct from essay, instrumental rationality. 92 Ucmj? This necessity appears clearly when we look at essay rational expectations models. Counseling Essay? As a rule, these models have multiple equilibria. Essay Jokes? This implies that the web criteria of essay, instrumental rationality is essays on social web, too weak to essay jokes, specify the death penalty is a essay way people forms their representations of the english jokes world. On Social? In the english essay jokes second section, we introduce the death penalty is a and unusual essay concept of english, social belief. An Unexpected Essay? We show that the english formation of act of kindness, social beliefs is jokes, closely related to 92 ucmj, the cultural and essay historic context. Article 92 Ucmj? We conclude by jokes demonstrating that social beliefs cannot be thought of death penalty cruel essay, as the english direct result of penalty essay, individual beliefs : there are in english jokes part autonomous from an unexpected kindness essay, individual beliefs. Classification JEL : A1, B5, C7. cognitive rationality common belief coordination game focal point Schelling salience rational expectation social belief common reference.

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8 Steps to Writing the Perfect Personal Essay. It#39;s your first day back in English class and you are given the english essay jokes, assignment to essay about malaysian, write a personal essay. Do you remember how? You will, with the reminders below. Your teacher has a good reason for this assignment. The personal essay is helpful to teachers because it gives them a snapshot of your grasp of language, composition, and creativity. English Essay Jokes! The assignment is really quite easy, it#39;s about an unexpected act of kindness you after all, so this is your opportunity to shine! It#39;s a good idea to start by english, making sure you understand the composition of an essay. The simplest structure has just three parts: an introduction, a body of marriage information, and essay jokes, a conclusion.

You will hear of the five-paragraph essay. It has three paragraphs in the body instead of one. Simple. The introduction : Start your personal essay with an interesting sentence that hooks your readers. You want them to want to read more. If you need topic ideas, see No. 2. Essay! Once you have a compelling topic, decide on the main idea you want to communicate and introduce it with a bang. Body : The body of your essay consists of one to english essay, three paragraphs that inform your readers about the topic you introduced. About Lifestyle! An outline can be helpful before you begin so your thoughts are organized.

Paragraphs often have the same structure as the entire essay. They begin with a sentence that introduces the english essay, point and draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to essay, start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion.

Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. English Essay Jokes! If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines. The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is papers in electrical technology where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to essay jokes, the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Continue Reading Below.

Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself. Check out our lists of ideas. Write in a stream of consciousness. Death Penalty And Unusual Punishment! Open a blank document and write whatever comes into jokes, your mind, without stopping, until you#39;ve got three pages. Death Penalty Is A And Unusual Essay! It#39;s a mind dump.

Don#39;t stop, even if you have to write that you don#39;t know what to write next. Julia Cameron, in her book The Artist#39;s Way, calls this technique Morning Pages and suggests you practice it every morning upon waking. Do a little research. Browsing tends to get the creative juices flowing. Essay! There are a lot of places beyond the Internet to do research.

Don#39;t steal ideas, let them inspire you to write about essays on social web your own ideas. Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. Essay! If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and article essay, well read.

If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. And then use it. Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for is use of the active voice. English Essay! The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what. Counseling! Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. English Jokes! Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers.

When you show readers exactly how you feel about research technology something, they can usually relate, and jokes, that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader. Essays! Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language. Write about essay jokes what you are for rather than what you are against . Act Of! Be for peace rather than against war. Use the voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. English! Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of it.

This is your essay. Never use the work of marriage essay other people and english jokes, call it your own. Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Essay Malaysian! Personal essays are your unique view of the topic. Be descriptive. Use all of essay your senses.

Put your reader in your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us. Help us experience your essay. About Malaysian! Be Consistent with Your Point of View and Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself.

This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for yourself only. You can make observations of others, but you can’t speak for them or truly know what they are thinking. English Jokes! Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about on social something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. The main point here is to english jokes, be consistent. Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in it.

Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. On Social Web! No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. English Jokes! Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct? Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of essays web your composition logical?

Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to help you.

Hire an jokes, essay editing service if you need to. Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is essays a good choice. One of the best ways to become a better writer is to essay jokes, be an avid reader of essays on social web good writing.

If you want to master the essay, art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in newspapers, books, magazines, and online. Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well. Pay attention to how the end ties back to the beginning.

The best writers are avid readers, especially in the form in which they work.

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Essays on the Chinese Language (1889)/3. CHINESE OPINIONS ABOUT THE. ORIGIN AND EARLY HISTORY OF THE LANGUAGE. Let us now go on to consider some of the essay views held by the Chinese about the first beginnings of their language. And the question of the origin and development of their own language is for an unexpected, most native writers that of the origin and development of human speech generally. Now it must be owned that, so far at least as their literature is known to us, Chinese philosophers have not treated this subject with any degree of jokes full or accurate thought. Yet it were rash to say, as some have said, that the problem of the origin of speech never occurred to 92 ucmj them, for we have reasons neither few nor slight for thinking that it did occur to them, and that they have had on it, at times at essay jokes least, decided opinions. On the one hand we know that the Chinese hold their own language in very high esteem, and on the other that they have composed, as we have seen, many works treating of the history, structure, sound, and meaning of its written characters. Thus there is at least a certain amount of probability in favour of the is a cruel punishment assumption that the question of the origin of jokes speech had also occurred to them.

And not only this, but moreover we do actually find scattered here and there in Chinese literature various and independent statements of opinion on the subject, though there is not, so far as the present writer knows, any treatise devoted to it specially. Lifestyle. It is the aim of the present chapter to bring together a few of these native statements of opinion about the birth and early growth of language spoken and written, and specially such as may be compared with the theories of western authors on the same subject. To begin at the beginning, the theory that the first human beings who lived on english essay jokes this earth were speechless does not seem to have ever prevailed in China. Web. The books and common traditions of the country generally represent those unknown creatures as a turpe , but seldom or never as a mutum pecus . They are supposed to jokes have herded together in marriage dens or caves, living on the natural fruits of the earth, knowing nothing and caring little about anything beyond their daily round of wants as they arose and were satisfied. They were not, however, like the beasts among which they lived and which they hunted for food and clothing, mere dumb animals. Essay. On the contrary, most native authors who have written on the subject expressly maintain that man spoke from the beginning, that speech arose when human life began in the world. [1] Han Wen-kung, however, says that people, that is the Chinese, were at on social web first like birds, and english essay beasts, and barbarians. They did not know how to grow grain, and build houses, to love their parents and honour their superiors, to nourish their living and bury their dead, until sages arose to teach them. [2] Here we find barbarians classed with birds and beasts which have not the faculty of speech. But from all time the Chinese seem to have regarded foreigners as little above the malaysian lifestyle brute creatures, and some authors expressly state that barbarians — the I and Ti (??) — are as birds and beasts.

Hence we find the character for Dog often used as the classifier of essay characters which represent the names of foreign tribes. The speech of these also is compared to the shrill scream of the article 92 ucmj essay shrike and the calls of other birds. The people of english essay Yang-shan in Kuangtung were said by Han Wen-kung to have the speech of papers in electrical birds and the faces of barbarians, and they were to him barbarians. Jokes. In like manner to other nations, for example the ancient Greeks, the speech of foreigners sounded like the utterances of article essay birds and essay beasts. Herodotus explains the legend of the doves at Dodona by the supposition that Egyptian women had at one time been brought over. The speech of these was unknown to the Greeks, to whom the strangers appeared to be chattering like birds — talking like doves.

When the women learned to talk Greek they were said to utter human speech. The same author says of the swift-footed, reptile-eating Troglodytes, that they did not use a language like any other but cheaped like bats. So also ?schylus makes the Greek Clytemnestra say of her words to the Trojan Cassandra, But if she has not, like a swallow, an unknown barbarous voice, I, speaking within her comprehension, persuade her by speech. We are told, moreover, that the Greeks, to whom also all foreigners were barbarians, did not speak of the dialects of barbarians but only of their tongues. [3] The chief reason, perhaps, why Chinese philosophers have not discussed the origin of speech in special treatises and of set purpose, is cruel and unusual punishment essay that they regard the faculty of english speech as the natural result of man's existence, as inherent in his constitution. What may be considered as the orthodox and national opinion on the subject is that man speaks, just as he eats, and drinks, and sleeps, and loves, and fears, from an instinct which forms part of his nature. That man speaks is nature's work, the an unexpected act of Chinese would repeat.

There is nothing divine or superhuman in the fact, nor anything which shews that the faculty was one attained by slow degrees and after many vague attempts. English Essay Jokes. One native philosopher describes man as speaking by breathing forth the air contained in the mouth and throat by movements of the lips and tongue. Papers In Electrical Technology. The act of speaking is english jokes like playing a flute. Man's mouth and throat are the musical instrument, and the movements of the tongue are the play of the fingers on the holes. The power of speaking grows and fails with the growth and decay of man's vital powers, and research papers in electrical these need food and drink for their maintenance. Hence it cannot be that the dead speak or that ghosts wail and cry by english, night. Death Penalty And Unusual Punishment. [4] Another philosopher explains sound as the result of the violent friction of english jokes air and solids. Two kinds of essay air in violent collision make sounds such as echo and thunder; two solids make noises like the beating of jokes a drum and the clapping of hands; a solid acting on the air yields a sound such as that made by a fan or an arrow; and the air working on a solid gives the marriage counseling human voice and the sounds of wind instruments. [5] Hence we find the vocal utterances of essay man classed with those of other animals, with the song of the bird and the cry of the wild beast; and sometimes even with the marriage counseling sounds yielded by lifeless matter, with the roar of the thunder, the english essay jokes prattle of the brook, and the ring of the struck rock. These all are the results of marriage natural capacities moved by outward influences.

They are merely the audible results of the impact of the english jokes formless essence of matter on body of essay malaysian definite shape; they are the call or cry of the elemental air, for the air itself whistles and roars. [6] Hence we find such a term as ming (?), for example, used for all kinds of noises. It is properly and originally, as the character indicates, the call or song of english essay jokes birds. But it is used for the roar of thunder, the wind's whistling, the noise of death penalty and unusual rushing water, the sough among the pines, the ring of a bell, the english essay tones of a lyre, the cricket's chirr, the crow of the cock, the dove's coo, the ass's bray, the neigh of the horse, and the manifold voice of article 92 ucmj man. There is only, says the essay jokes Confucianist philosopher, a minute difference between man and the lower animals, and even that is lost by common people. The wise man keeps that which makes the difference and so gains moral and intellectual perfection. But at birth there is an unexpected act of essay only this difference between all human beings and the lower animals, that the former have a perfect and the latter an imperfect material organisation. [7] The first vocal utterances of man are those made from jokes instinctive feeling, and are the natural universal sounds of marriage counseling humanity and living beings generally. English Essay Jokes. The means which man has for expressing his feelings are briefly described by 92 ucmj essay, an early author.

Poetry, he says, is emotional thought expressed in essay jokes language. The feelings are moved within man and find vent in words. The deficiencies of the latter are supplied by ejaculations and sighs, the death penalty and unusual punishment defects of english essay which call for utterance long drawn out in essays song, and, this not sufficing, the hands wave and english jokes the feet move to and fro. [8] As we know, the cries and gesticulations of children and animals are the spontaneous expression of their emotions when stirred. From such cries arose rhythmical vocal utterances which afterwards developed into poetry. In general, writes Han Wen-kung, objects produce sound only research in electrical when disturbed. Plants and trees are mute until they are agitated by english essay, the wind, when they yield sound, and so is it with water. Metal and stone are mute, but they give sound when struck, and 92 ucmj essay it is the same as to man with speech. When he cannot get his own way he speaks; he sings his anxiety and weeps his sorrow.

All the utterances which proceed from his mouth are the result of his being disturbed. Speech is the quintessence of human sounds, and english essay literary composition is the on social web quintessence of speech. [9] It was perhaps from the perception of the emotional nature of early speech that some Chinese writers were led to the theory that their spoken language had its origin in music. By this, however, nothing more may be meant than that man's emotions expressed themselves first in inarticulate musical cadences, and that from these he gradually proceeded to articulate significant utterances. [10] One author, at least, states the above theory without bringing forward any argument in english its support, but others base it on essay about lifestyle arguments derived from tradition and probability. With it we may compare that of Darwin on the origin of spoken language, stated in his wonted clear and english essay jokes suggestive manner. In the Descent of Man he writes, I cannot doubt that language owes its origin to the imitation and modification, aided by signs and gestures, of various natural sounds, the voice of marriage counseling other animals, and man's own instinctive cries. When we treat of sexual selection we shall see that primeval man, or rather some early progenitor of man, probably used his voice largely, as does one of the gibbon-apes at the present day, in producing true musical cadences, that is, in singing; we may conclude from a widely spread analogy that this power would have been especially exerted during the courtship of the sexes, serving to express various emotions, as love, jealousy, triumph, and serving as a challenge to their rivals. The imitation by articulate sounds of english essay musical cries might have given use to words expressive of various complex emotions. [11] But on the other hand there are also Chinese writers who suppose that music had its origin in speech, the latter having passed from untoned to toned utterances, and thence to tunes made after laws sought out from on social nature. This recalls the essay similar theory which Mr.

Spencer expounds and article developes with his usual power in one of the most interesting of his Essays. [12] Whatever be the immediate origin of speech, however, it is in its earliest stage natural and spontaneous, the embodiment of the original tones of Heaven and Earth. The first men spoke just as the wind blows, without any conscious effort. The feelings find vent in sounds which spring from man's mind, having their source in his constitution. Articulate utterances come from english essay man's mind, others tell us, and are natural; their form cannot be altered by 92 ucmj essay, any conscious exercise of an individual's power. Not even a king can change a word, and of course no one of less influence can avail to do anything whatever in this respect.

The fashions in words as in other things change from age to age, but no one can by taking thought alter the fashions. For example, the people of a place may have once called a river kong whereas their descendants may now call it kiang , but the essay one is on social web as good as the jokes other, and each is right as the working of a natural law. With these statements we many compare the emphatic declaration of the great expounder of language as a natural product. Professor Max Muller tells us that although there is a continuous change in language it is not in the power of any man either to produce or prevent it. We might think as well of changing the act of essay laws which control the circulation of our blood, or of adding an inch to our height, as of altering the laws of speech, or inventing new words according to our own pleasure. As man is the lord of nature only if he knows her laws and submits to them, the poet and philosopher become the lords of language only if they know its laws and obey them. [13] Chinese opinions differ as to what is the english essay jokes first articulate sound made by the human baby. Some tell us that it is huang-huang , but this is only an a priori theory. To each of the five elements a certain sound is assigned.

Thus water has a ssu sound, and that of in electrical metal is english huang (?). Now in man's constitution the element metal is represented by his voice, and hence an infant, as soon as it can, cries huang-huang . [14] But other native writers tell us that the first sound uttered by a human being is a or ya . Hence the letter called a is said to be rightly placed at the head of Western alphabets, and some even go so far as to declare that in papers every sound uttered by man's opened mouth there is an a element. It is considered, however, that a sounds are natural to male, and ei or i sounds to essay female infants, and that the distinction continues in essay after years. This, according to the Chinese, is the spontaneous result of the human constitution. Our forefathers seem to have had similar notions about the distinctions made by male and female babies in their first utterances, though they accounted for the fact of the jokes distinction in a different manner. In an old poem—Hampole's Pricke of Conscience—we read that a child as soon as born begins to essays goule and cry. The author says that by the cry may be known. Whether it be man or weman, For when it es born it cryes swa;

If it be man, it says 'a, a', That the first letter es of the nam. Of our forme-fader Adam. And if the child a woman be, When it es born, it says 'e, e,' E es the first letter and essay jokes the hede.

Of the name of Eve that began our dede. It is a pity that the Chinese do not know the historical explanation of this interesting fact. But a different explanation is given by Webbe, who did not take notice of the sexual distinctions. He, it will be remembered, thought that Noah settled in China after the flood, and he says:—Wherefore it is not unobservable that the very first utterance that an Infant at his birth yeeldeth is ya, ya, ya ; as if the Lord had ordained, either that we should be born with his name Jah in our mouths, which name is generally ascribed to him, when some notable deliverance or benefit, according to essay about lifestyle his former promise comes to pass, because he is the beginning and Being of beings, and giveth to all, life, and breath, and all things — Acts 17. v. 25 — or else, that in our swathling clothes we should have something of the Primitive Language, till afterwards confounded, as we are taught to speak. But, by english essay, ya the Chinois intend Excellens . Essay. [15] This may not give the true explanation of the first utterances of all babies over all the world. The Chinese own that these utterances are only cries, and of a class with those of birds and beasts. The infant has no language but a cry, and in this respect it is not better than other animals, perhaps not so well supplied as other creatures.

Nor is the capacity for uttering articulate sounds the possession of man alone among mortal beings. The ape-like Sing-sing and several other animals, according to essay jokes Chinese opinion, are able to article 92 ucmj essay talk and understand human speech. As regards the Sing-sing, the statement that it can speak is doubted by some and denied by essay jokes, others, while of those who agree to it not a few think that the animal has the power of speaking only when it is drunk. That it can laugh and cry, however, seems to be the an unexpected opinion of all authorities. It is a creature of uncertain appearance, and is described as having a body like that of a pig, or as like a dog, a badger, or an ape. English Jokes. The last is the form in which it is usually represented in pictures, but the an unexpected act of face is always supposed to resemble that of a human being.

Another ape-like creature supposed to be able to talk and jokes laugh is the Fei-fei (?? — and other ways). It also assumes various forms, appearing sometimes as a bear or an ape, and 92 ucmj essay often as a man or woman. It has a wicked laugh and by this it lures unwise wayfarers into the wood, where it eats them. Jokes. The wise, however, can distinguish between the Fei-fei's voice and that of a human being by the shrill squeaking character of the former. The Tortoise, ancient and mystical, which inhabits the fifth stage of the research papers fabled Sumeru Mountain, is also credited with the english essay jokes possession of essay about human speech. Essay Jokes. Among birds, the mainah, parrot, and others, are known to the Chinese as able to talk. In the country of the Tiao-chi (), near the Caspian sea, is a monstrous bird called the Chi-chio (), that is, perhaps, the Tiao-chi Magpie. This bird is said to understand human speech but, we are not told that it can talk.

There is no doubt, however, that the mainah can talk, but its tongue must first be cut or pared down, and it is of great importance that this should be done on the 5th day of the 5th moon. So also the parrot should have its tongue cut in order that it may make the mimicry which our pious poet calls, That odious libel on a human voice. The parrot can speak, it is true, without having this operation performed, but his power of speaking is not persistent, and he can be made dumb by rubbing him gently down the back. Now though the marriage essay above creatures can use man's words they cannot be said to have the faculty of english essay jokes speech. The parrot, as one author says, can speak but he cannot carry on malaysian a conversation, because he has only the capacity to speak, not the english essay faculty of speech; he follows the article lead of others and cannot take the lead himself. As another author puts it, the parrot learns man's speech but cannot originate new expressions, because it has not any high intelligence. It learns the words which man utters, but not the. Pen-ts'ao, chap, li., f; IS il SE. chaps, vi. and x. Jokes. In the Poh-wu- chih we are told that the Sing-sing is Uke a yellow dog with a man's face, and that it can speak (® ?H ^ ^ ^^j A tlQ f^ W). chap. iii. Another way of essay writing Sing-sing is thoughts of his mind.

That is, the parrot has the physical organs and imitative faculty but not the intellectual capacity for speaking. Nor does the mere fact that they talk raise the Sing-sing and parrot, for example, from the rank of brute creatures. Birds and beasts having an inferior organisation cannot develope their nature at all points. English Jokes. They may in some respects shew good moral qualities, the germs of which are in them at papers in electrical technology birth by heavenly appointment, but they do not advance in moral and essay jokes intellectual culture. The crow has filial piety and research papers in electrical technology the wild duck is true to essay its mate; the fox does not forget the place of his birth, and in electrical the ant helps all of its kin. But does a crow bury his mother or a fox give way to english essay jokes his elders? Do the wild ducks wait for the go-between before they pair, and have the ants any form of worship? The parrot and death is a cruel and unusual the starling may talk but they have no sense of the fitness of time and place, and so are no better than other birds.

A featherless biped, as a native writer says, may speak, but without li ( ? ) he is english essay jokes not man. It is this sense of order and papers in electrical of doing what is right and becoming in the family and in society, and the code of obligations thence resulting, this li which lifts man above the other creatures.^ Some of these can indeed produce articulate utterances, after having learned them, by imitation, as an infant learns its first words by imitating its mother. But it is human sounds, not human speech, to borrow an expression from Dante, which these creatures imitate, and they are not capable. Huai Nan-tzu's Works, chap, xvi.; $| M A ^ M P5 g^, chap. ii. On the other hand we read of men in english essay jokes former times who understood the langfuage of the lower animals. See, e.g., the Supplement to the Poh-wu-chih (j^ |^ ^ jg), chap. Lifestyle. iii. There are also instances on record in which the parrot is not merely an imitator but also initiates a conversation and shows tender feeling.

So also a mainah when sold to english jokes a barbarian committed suicide, saying that he was a Chinese bird and essay malaysian lifestyle would not go among barbarinns (^ Si ^ ^Wi^^ chap, xvii.) Some tell us that the mainah (^ ^ T or ^ T or X ^) in its wild state cannot speak, and it is only when domesticated it learns to talk. chaps, ccccxxi. and ccccxxxii.; Li-chi, chap, i., and Confucian writers generally. Essay Jokes. Of the term Li (^), Gallery, an excellent authority, writes as follows : Autant que possible, je I'ai traduit par le mot Eite, dont le sens est susceptible d'un grande etendue ; mais il faut convenir que, suivant les circonstances ou il est employe, il pent signifier * Ceremonial, Ceremonies, Pratiques ceremoniales L'etiquette, Politesse, Urbanite, Courtoisie, Honnetete, Bonnes manieres, Egards, Bonne education, Bienseance, Les formes, Les convenances, Savoir vivre. Decorum, Decence, Dignite personelle, Moralite de conduite, Ordre social, Devoirs de societe, Lois sociales, Devoirs, Droit, Morale, Lois hierarchiques, Ofifrande, Usages, Coutumes., Li-ki, introduction, p. 16. See his Delia Volg.

Eloq., L. i., chap. Article 92 Ucmj Essay. ii. of language. English. As Lyell says, It was a profound saying of William Humboldt, that 'Man is Man only by death penalty is a cruel essay, means of speech, but in order to invent speech he must be already Man.' Other animals may be able to utter sounds more articulate and essay jokes as varied as the click of the Bushman, but voice alone can never enable brute intelligence to acquire language. [16] Yet perhaps because the power of speaking is supposed to belong to the Sing-sing and parrot, these animals are also credited with the essays web possession of other extaordinary endowments, for the Sing-sing knows the past and the parrot the future. This bird can even understand and interpret dreams, and essay jokes it has some notion of piety, for it has been heard to recite Buddhist prayers, and it has been seen sitting in ecstatic meditation seeking to attain that supreme supernatural intelligence which all true Buddhists seek finally to acquire. But the faculty of speech in its full meaning is the property of man only. It is his characteristic possession, that which makes him man. [17] The first men spoke as they were moved, without aim and without effort, but their speech was only the air made vocal. It was, indeed, the research music of an ?olian flute, the free whistling of heaven. English Essay Jokes. Still it was only whistling, and, as an old philosopher says, human speech is not whistling. He who speaks says something, and though in what he says there is nothing absolute, yet there is a difference between his speech and the chirp of a chick. [18] In man, writes a practical statesman, [19] speech is the handle of the moral nature, the lord of action, the motive power of the mind, and the visible expression of the body, and essay malaysian with man alone words are capable of english jokes communicating ideas.

The object of speech is to give expression to the feelings and thoughts. But that it is not a perfect instrument was long ago seen and acknowledged by the Chinese. Thus we are told that as writing does not fully represent the spoken language so this latter does not fully express the about malaysian mind. [20] Speech is, indeed, classed with seeing and hearing, but as it is not the english essay material organ which sees or hears, so also it is not the mouth which speaks. It is the spiritual principle by some called hsing (?) and by some li (?), which goes through all the body, seeing in the eye, hearing in the ear, and speaking in the mouth. [21] In the Great Plan which Heaven gave to Yu, the second division was on the Reverent use of the five faculties (????), or, as translates, The Reverent Practice of the Five Businesses. These were demeanour, speech, seeing, hearing, and thinking. These five, another philosopher tells us, are all natural to man, but they need education to papers technology keep them right. Without this, by which man acquires li (?), he is little better than the beasts which want discourse of reason, and he may even be found to lack the essay jokes faculty of speech. [22] Thus we read of tribes who did not know language (???), and the black slaves, once much used by rich Cantonese, are said to have understood human speech, but to have been unable to talk. Research Papers In Electrical Technology. This, however, probably only meant that they could not speak Chinese. English Jokes. [23] Now, though the faculty of web speech developed itself in primeval man without conscious action or reflection on his part, the first language must have been poor and essay rude. But even in its earliest stage this language began to receive enlargement and cultivation from the higher intellects of the marriage time. Hence human speech as we now know it has a twofold origin, in the muddy source whence man emerges into existence with all the myriad creatures of the world, and in essay jokes the mind—the spiritual principle which he alone knows to cultivate and develope.

From the former spring cries of marriage fear and calls for food, shouts of joy and notes of alarm, and much of that stock of speech which is common property. From the mind proceeded such terms as those for english essay, Filial Piety, Justice, Law, Humanity. Man must have always had some idea of these virtues, for their germs existed in 92 ucmj him from the beginning. But it was not until the germs were developed in thinking men that terms like the above were invented. These and the correct names of objects generally, say the Chinese, were fabricated by the first teachers of mankind, by english essay, those kings and sages who taught in the first uncertain twilight of human life. The Chinese theory on this subject is well expressed by research technology, Renan when he says, It is certain that we do not understand the organisation of english jokes language without une action d'hommes d'elite, exercising a certain authority around them and capable of imposing on research papers technology others what they believed best. The aristocracy of sages was the law of nascent humanity; the english essay jokes leaven which produced civilisation could ferment at first only in a number almost imperceptible of predestined heads. In some native treatises we find the work of correct naming ascribed to the semi-mythical Huang Ti, who is supposed to have lived about B.C. 2600.

He is said to have observed and studied the papers in electrical heavens and earth and all the english essay jokes then-existing objects and institutions, and so elaborated the real names of things, the modes of expression which corresponded with the actualities of essay nature and the mind. But more usually the glory is given to english jokes old sages generally, the in electrical technology enlighteners of the people. English. In either case the correct language thus made was produced by degrees and as the result of kindness observation and study. It had been preceded by a language awkward and uncertain, for the first savages must have had, though only to limited extent, names by which they were wont to denote the articles they used and the events of their lives. But this language of theirs was neither correct nor fixed, and it was very meagre, for the rude forefathers of humanity had few wants and little thought. Hence the founders of english social order had to seek out and communicate a fuller and more perfect phraseology; they invented, or rather discovered, set forms of language by which they could give a symbolical character to the sounds of their voice, their thoughts and feelings—verba quibus voces sensusque notarent nominaque invenere. An Unexpected. Chinese authors will have us believe that all this was done with a view to the introduction of good and settled government, and the improvement of society. They are not content unless they see a moral or political motive prompting all the actions of their early sages.

But if speech is nature's gift to man how comes it to vary from place to place ? That it changes from place to place has been declared to be the working of natural law. It is nature's, not man's doing that the accent and pronunciation of words alter, that one term rises and another falls out of use as generation follows generation. Essay Jokes. But how is it that not only has the language of China been always unlike the in electrical technology dialects of the barbarian tribes in her midst and on her frontiers, but also that this language itself varies from essay district to district ? The answer is that here too we have the work of nature. The wind air and the soil and water/' that is, the natural conditions of a place, affect the . physical constitutions of the inhabitants, and thence gradually influence also their moral qualities. Then in course of time the character and conduct of the people react on the climatic condi- tions of a place, over which they exercise a mysterious but undoubted influence. Thus wind air (??) means not only the physical qualities of a district, but also its moral character. It is the differences in climate, physical constituents, and moral character which make the an unexpected essay variations of dialects.

People differ in the quality of jokes their natural dispositions and in research the language they speak ; this is the spontaneous result of climate, and english jokes the product of continued practice. So writes one native author who knew by experience something about the varieties of human speech. Essay Malaysian Lifestyle. That the inhabitants of english essay jokes one place, a popular writer tells us, are firm and manly while those of essay another place are the opposite, that people here are smart and there slow, that the language of this district is not understood by the inhabitants of that, all result from the assimilation of the local climatic influences by the people. The children of barbarous tribes (??), writes another, all make the same noises when they are infants, but speak differently when they grow up, and the ¦^ 1 See ???, chap. xi. and introduction ; ????, chap. vi. English Essay. ; Benan, !!L;iDe L'Origine du Lang., preface, p. 25 (4th ed.) difference is the result of education, that is, of the circumstances in which they develope. As it is by having li (jg) that man is higher than the bird and beast, so also it is this li which distin- guishes between the Chinese and the foreigner (barbarian), and between the gentleman (g ^) and the cad ()J A) among Chinese. This li, however, depends for its existence and develop- ment mainly on external circumstances (J55 ^ J5S ?b); ^^ *^® kind and degree of education or training which children receive.^ Without this li, or sense of what is right and becoming in his social relations, man could never have produced what is called a language.

To invent this, to find out and fit on the due names of the objects and phenomena of nature and of the feelings and thoughts of the mind, was a great achievement. As Hobbes writes, viewing the subject from a different stand-point, but expressing in clear direct words what Chinese writers have stated though not so well : — But the most noble and profitable invention of all other was that of Speech, consisting of marriage essay names or appellations, and their connexion; whereby men register their thoughts; recall them when they are past; and also declare them one to another for mutual utility and conversation ; without which there had been amongst men, neither commonwealth, nor society, nor contract, nor peace, no more than amongst lions, bears and wolves. [24] But spoken words are air, and live a vague, uncertain life. They fade too and die from memory like an echo in the hills or a roaring of wind in the forest. So even in english very early timds mfen must Have sought for a visible lasting record and evidence of their events and transactions, a way of penalty cruel and unusual punishment perpetuating spoken words and english jokes saving them from the fate of dark forgetful- ncss. And how do Chinese think men arrived at this ? Let us take for answer t^^ irords of one of their students of this branch' of learning.

In the introduction to the Liu-shu-ku the author says : Visible representation (35^) proceeds from 92 ucmj essay spoken. Yuan-tsang in Hsi-yu-chi chap, i.; Sacred Edict, Art. ix. Ampin.; Kang-hsi's Diet., preface; the ^^, chap, i.; Huai-nan-tzii, chap. xi. ; :^ llj ^ ^ ^ ^, chap, xxxiii. ; Li-shi, etc., as above, chap. i. ; *' Li-chi, (H gg), chap.'xii. (+ - ^ ed. Yuan-yuan). sounds, that is, these precede and their delineation follows. The combination of meaning and jokes sound is about malaysian not the essay product of this visible representation. Death Is A Punishment Essay. There is no means of investigating the origin of english mankind, but we may reasonably infer that men at first were naked and unkempt. They killed wild animals, skinned them and tore up their carcases for food and clothing. Their emotional natures were fierce like those of birds and beasts, and their intellects were undeveloped like those of infants.

They could only by howling and shouting then make known to each other their likings and in electrical dislikings, their joys and angers. Then as their intellects developed they gradually acquired the ability to give names to things, and so they had a supply of sounds for shouting and english calling. Writing had not yet arisen, and as classes of research papers technology objects increased and their arrangement became more complicated, men could not do without some evidential record. So in time there arose the essay institution (or arrangement) of research in electrical technology knotted cords. Then as cunning increased and regulations became more complicated, engravings were made on bamboo and english essay jokes wood to form records. Kindness. At the present time, barbarians (??) and rustics ignorant of characters apparently use such engravings, which are called chH (?), that is, tallies or indentures. When these proved insufficient for all the vicissitudes of affairs the forms of material objects were pictured and the essential features of immaterial objects were indicated. Thus engravings were made for the names of all objects material and essay immaterial, and thence arose the essay about malaysian lifestyle knife-inscribed tablets called Writings (?). The author goes on to shew how the first writing, which was only pictorial and indicative (or suggestive), came to be followed by other developments until the english essay wealth of characters equalled human demands. The whole of essays on social web this introduction, in spite of not a few faults, is interesting and worthy of english jokes perusal. [25] It was necessity, the article 92 ucmj essay Chinese own, which first struck out the art of recording, the necessity of aiding memory and keeping evidence.

It seems to be generally agreed that the expedient first adopted was that of knotted cords. The inventor of this expedient is of course unknown, but the prevailing tradition points to Sui-jen-shi (???), a fabulous ruler in the mythical past. Some writers ascribe the invention to Shen-nung (??) and some to Fu-hsi. In the commentary on jokes the Yi-ching, attributed to about malaysian lifestyle Confucius, it is simply stated that in the earliest times cords were knotted for purposes of essay jokes regulation (or government). And in other old books, such as the Tao-t-ching, we find reference to the use of knotted cords for official and private purposes. This use prevailed also among the ancestors of the marriage present Manchoos, and it is said to exist still among some tribes of the essay Miao-tz.

In China it was instituted, some tell us, for purposes of Government. Hence we have such proverbial expressions as Chiesheng-cM'Cheng (????), the government of knotted cords, to denote that purely mythical time the golden age of the world's life. Others, however, suggest that the knotted cords were instituted and used for purposes of counting, and for research papers in electrical technology, preserving records of transactions where number was concerned, and records of dealings generally. A matter of importance is said to have been signified by a large knot (or knotted cord) and a small affair by a small one. But whatever may have been the jokes purpose for which this expedient was invented, and whoever may have been its inventor, it is essays on social certain that the expedient did not succeed. It served only so long as people were simple and english essay jokes free from guile, and the requirements of society were neither numerous nor important. [26] It seems to essay about have been for purposes of counting and recording matters which involved numbers that those very primitive and simple combinations called Ho-t'u (??) and Lo-shu (??) were invented.

There are certain diagrams of these accepted as the orthodox arrangements and, according to some, giving the original figures. These are to be found in certain editions of the Yi-ching, and in essay jokes various other treatises. The Ho-tu , or plan from the Yellow River, as shewn in research these diagrams, is an arrangement of english essay jokes 55 circles, of which 30 are dark and 25 blank, in numbers from on social web one to english essay ten, both inclusive. Death Penalty Cruel And Unusual Essay. The Lo-shu, or writing from the river Lo, is an arrangement of 45 dark and light circles in numbers from one to nine, such that the number fifteen is jokes made up by the circles counted in a perpendicular, a horizontal, or a diagonal manner. According to certain old testimony, the River plan and Lo writing appeared as a supernatural phenomenon to Fu-hsi, who used them as models or hints.

Setting out from these he produced the research technology mysterious wonderful Pa-kua and its combinations. By these he shadowed forth the dark influences of all heavenly and earthly powers in a manner abstruse beyond all understanding. The figure known as the Pa-kua is greatly venerated by the Chinese, who regard it as the english essay jokes lineal ancestor of their writing, and an unexpected kindness also as a potent Drudenfuss. What purpose it first served or was meant to serve cannot perhaps be now ascertained, for essay, all record of its primitive use seems to have been lost long ago. It represents, according to one statement, the an unexpected act of kindness essay primitive division of creation into male and female, and gives illustrations of odd and even. In its trigrams also is the hidden spring from which writing had its origin. Some native authors think that the combination of the two kinds of english essay jokes lines were meant to represent a system of counting. So also the Jesuit Missionaries Bouvet and Leibnitz were convinced that the broken line represented 0 and the unbroken line I. Leibnitz says that instead of philosophic mysteries having been hidden by an unexpected act of essay, Fu-hsi in the combinations of these lines, it was the Binary Arithmetic which, as it seems, the english jokes great legislator possessed, and which I have rediscovered some thousands of years afterwards. Malaysian. The Yi-ching, which interprets the mystical meanings of the Pa-kua and its permutations and combinations, is english regarded by the Chinese as a sort of divine inspiration and as containing the essay lifestyle secret possibilities of english all wisdom. Mayers, Ch.

R. M., No. 177; Yi-ching, ??, chap, x.; ????; Wuttke Geschichte d. Schrift, etc., p. 247 ; Leibnitz op. vol. iv. p. 208 (ed. Kindness. Dutens). With Mayers' account of the Hb-i'w and jokes Lo-s/iw compare the state- ment of Tsai Yuan-ting in the introduction of the ????. But, according to some Chinese, the next step towards writing, after knotted cords, was the use of carved sticks to serve as tallies. These do not seem to have been merely sticks notched or indented. They are described as having also some kind of inscription or engraving, even from the earliest time of their use. The expedient was, however, a rude and simple one common to the Chinese with other tribes. Thus the chiefs of the ancient Tungus gave warrant to about malaysian lifestyle their commands by means of such sticks, and the Man (?) tribes in Chinese are said to have used them in making agreements.

Carving in wood seems to have been practised in english China from a remote period, and to have been employed for various purposes. In the seventh century B.C. the. times elaborately carved and coloured. The use of carved tallies also arose at some early period, but there is no record of its beginning. It too was apparently first confined to counseling matters of numbers, and afterwards extended to business dealings and acts of government. From these ch^i (?), or carved tallies, some derive the immediate origin of writing, while others regard the english jokes chH and shu (?) as coseval. One of the eight kinds of counseling characters — the Fa-t^ (??) — appointed for use by Ch'in Shi Huang Ti, was that called the K'e-fu (??) or carved tally, noticed already. But such rude appliances as knotted cords and carved sticks could not long suffice to english jokes meet the requirements of marriage counseling essay a growing society. The Chinese, accordingly, represent themselves as having at an early period of their history learned to cut and afterwards paint, in wood and stone and metal, figures or outlines of objects. These were practically the english jokes first beginning of research papers in electrical writing for them. All the english earliest characters seem to have been either pictorial representations or rough symbols of is a and unusual punishment natural objects and phenomena.

That is, they were either drawings which presented an english outline of an research papers in electrical object, or drawings which by their composition pointed to essay jokes the meaning intended. In Chinese language they were Ssiang-hsing (??), Likeness-form, or Ghi-shi (??), Hou Han. shu, chap, xc; Sui-shu, the Nan-man-chuan ; ?????? (also called ^ v., p. 106 ; Kuh (also called ??, etc.), chap. Essay About Malaysian. xv. Essay Jokes. ?????? chap. Papers In Electrical Technology. iv. ; Legge, 0. C, ah-liang-chuan, chap. vi. (???) ; Me-tzii (??), chap. i. Indicating-quality. But it is scarcely correct to call them pictorial writing, for no far as surviving records of essay or about in electrical technology them shew, they did not so much reproduce as merely symbolise. They were marks by which the names of jokes things could be known and remembered, and hence they were first called names. This term, however, was applied properly only to marriage essay the words or phrases denoting the objects represented. The symbols or figures were called Wen (?), a term of very wide signification. The origin of this symbol-writing cannot perhaps be discovered.

Its invention is by some ascribed to english essay Fu-hsi, and by some to research papers Shi Huang-shi (???), a mythical ruler who preceded Fu-hsi. Of this latter it is expressly recorded that he drew the Pa-kua and invented writing—literally, writing tallies ( ?? ). Here, as in english jokes previous steps, the useful point of marriage counseling essay view is taken and Fu-hsi is said to have instituted writing to english jokes replace the administration by knotted cords. But it is to Tsang-chie ( ?? ) that the invention is most usually ascribed. This man has an uncertain personality. He has been identified with Shi Huang-shi, with Huang Ti, and with others. He is also said to have been one of Huang Ti's Ministers of State, and to have had four eyes. Not only did he make the first characters, but he also, according to some accounts, greatly developed the art of death penalty and unusual essay writing. Thus he is said to have arranged the characters under the six classes called the Liu-shu , or six writings, though this is also said to have been done by Fu-hsi, the nose-ancestor, or first beginner of the art of writing. But there is a glamour on all Chinese writers when they attempt to english jokes describe the about malaysian lifestyle origin and early history of their written characters. The first artificer of these can never be known, but he must have been far above everyday men. To him, whether Tsang-chie or another, moved by the secret force of fate, appeared the english essay jokes mystical eternal tortoise.

Its back was marked by lines which formed quaint devices to essay the eye of the sage, and stirred his mind to think and wonder. He took the hints, as it were, and devised a system of writing. This invention was fraught with great consequences, and put the universe in commotion. The heavens rained millet, ghosts wailed by night, and dragons went into english essay, hiding. Essay. There are also Chinese writers who regard pictorial or symbolical representation as co?val with speech. They think it was quite as natural for man to depict as to talk.

This unfortunately reminds one of jokes Dogberry's assertion that to write and read comes by on social, nature. The representation of objects passed gradually, such writers think, to the use of characters. Then the pictorial gave birth to the phonetic characters, as a mother gives birth to a child. These characters, strictly so called, are tzu (?) as if ?, bearers of children, or as if ?, sons, begotten and english jokes begetting. Hence it may be concluded that the origin and growth of penalty is a cruel and unusual punishment writing followed a natural course. [27]

For the english essay jokes Chinese will not have it that Tsang-chie, or whoever first devised their characters, invented symbols which were purely arbitrary or artificial. On the contrary, he proceeded with aim and rule throughout. He studied in the heavens above their starry clusters and all their charactery, the changing moon, the unvarying sun, and the endless succession of all the elemental phenomena. Beneath the sky he noted the bird's flight and its footprints in the sand, the tortoise's carapace, and the varied forms of nature in general. These he tried to figure forth with knife and brush; but how was he to carve or paint an outline or symbol for such words as mind , and law , and love and righteousness ? There was nothing in the material world to which the ideas represented by these words could be likened. Not even in such cases, however, did the Father of Writing make arbitrary signs, for those which he instituted were the natural product of the pre-existing spiritual facts and principles. He cannot properly be said to have invented such characters, but rather to have in their discovery only given direction to the spontaneous tendency of article 92 ucmj essay man's genius.

It does not seem, however, that in the early period of writing many spiritual or abstract terms were ed. At first only english jokes material objects and their relations, dealings of business, and affairs of government, were depicted in outline or symbol. The chief aim which the inventors and first improvers of the graphic art had in view was to make a record which could be appealed to as evidence. It was in matters of an unexpected government, according to some native writers, that the use of writing began, the design of the inventors being to facilitate intercourse between the ruler and his servants, and between these and the people, and to essay jokes register transactions of importance. Thus, when in old times the death and unusual punishment prince of one state invaded the. territory of another, slew the inhabitants, and carried off booty, he caused the event to be recorded. It was written (?) on bamboo or silk, and engraved in metal and stone to be inscribed on sacrificial vessels for the information of posterity. Tsang-chie, says another author, made the first writing in order that distinct instructions might be given to officials, and for the efficient regulation of general affairs, that the stupid might be able to remember and the wise extend their thoughts. The primitive writing, whatever it was, seems, as has been stated, to have gradually passed into a somewhat artificial system, from which the present ways of jokes writing are descended. In the process of development it had to pass through several interme- diate phases, of which that called the Tadpole was one of the first. But some doubt whether there ever were any bond fide characters so called.

Before the time of the Han dynasty (B.C. 200), we are told the old styles of writing had become practical- ly unknown. When in that dynasty the tablets of malaysian lifestyle several of the english jokes Canonical and article other old works were discovered, the writing was unknown to the people. Essay. So they called the strange characters of the tablets Tadpoles, and this became the name of a certain whimsical style of written characters. The specimens given in some books are not unlike imitations of tadpoles and not very like significant characters. It is also stated that the essay about malaysian lifestyle kind of. ????, chap. xvi. English Essay Jokes. ; Lun-heng, chap, xviii. ; *' Huai-nan.tzii, chap.

XX.; ¦' Li-shi-yin-chien, chap, i.j Ho-han.san-ts'ai, o., chap, xv.j M6.tzu, ohap. ziii* writing known as the Tadpole characters was that invented by Fu-hsi, and again that it was the kind communicated by Tsang-chie. Of the other old styles those known as the Great and Small Seal are perhaps the most important.^ The written characters long since ceased to be in any degree pictorial, and they have become chiefly a means of denoting sounds as names of objects, sensations, or ideas. On Social. And it has been the opinion of feome that this was their original and proper intention. Writing, we are told, was born of english sound, that is, it was instituted to continue and perpetuate spoken language. Again, writing is said to be the woof and speaking the warp into essay about, which the former is Woven. Elsewhere the written characters are described as the english product of the reciprocal action of sound and visible representation; and another author regards dots and strokes as the lodging place of human speech when bodied forth in visible form. Dr. Edkins also has stated that the phonetic characters appear to belong to the same era as those that are hieroglyphic. They are found together among the earliest remains of Chinese literature. According to the uniform national tradition, they must, therefore, be dated about B.C.

2700. On Social Web. But this can scarcely be set down as the prevailing opinion among native students of the language. It may be true, however, of written characters, strictly so called. The earlier transcript of language, which was called wen (3!^), is essay defined as the visible representation of objects attslnged according to categories (or classes). It is act of kindness also stated that wen is the source of object-picturing or delineation.

But whatever may have been their primitive function, all characters now merely give visible representation to essay man's speech. And though the spoken words may be said to have called into an unexpected act of kindness, being the written characters, yet these latter have exercised a great and lasting influence on the former. The origin and history of Chinese writing are described at great length in the learned treatise of Wuttke on the History of Writing. The sources from which Wuttke derived his information are, of course, all Western, but he has compiled conscientiously and judiciously, 1 Li-shd, 0'j chap, i.; Ho (or Wo)-hon.sau.ts'ai, chap. xv. and his chapter on the present subject, notwithstanding mistakes, will repay a careful reading. The Chinese do not yield to essay jokes any in their appreciation of writing and its developments.

They long ago deified the inventor, and his supposed tomb is still a place of pilgrimage for enthusiastic scholars. From the practical, beneficial point of view the invention has been the subject of much praise. Let us hear one man, a Manchoo by origin, but a Chinese scholar of rare attainments, and a man of culture and article wide sympathies. Writing, says Kanghsi, is the most precious thing in the world. As to great matters, it has transmitted the philosophy which the ancient sages wished to transmit; and as to small matters, it keeps on jokes record the penalty is a cruel and unusual essay miscellaneous items which man's memory cannot retain. It can bring together people separated by a long interval of time, and allow them to hold intercourse; and by essay, it scholars of all the world, though living far apart, may take hands and talk their minds together. It makes a man's good repute, and aids him in his profession, expands his intelligence and supplies him with evidence. By it man learns without study and death cruel punishment teaches without speaking.

With the Chinese scholar generally it is his own language only which is in his mental view when he speaks of language, and the native writing only when he speaks of writing. The Chinese, as every one knows, are very proud of their language spoken and written, but specially of the latter. English. Yet they are by no means insensible to the defects of the written language, especially when considered as the intended transcript of marriage counseling essay verbal utterances. It is square and insufficient, says an author already quoted, while speech is round and complete. There are also very many terms and expressions in common use for english essay jokes, which no characters are known to exist, and research technology this is english essay true not only of the uncultivated dialects but also of the general language.

For the. Kanghsi's Diet., Int. j Liu-sha-ku, etc., as above j Wuttke, Gesoh. d. Sehrift, etc., S. ocxli. to cccoxxi. ????. most part, however, Chinese speak of marriage counseling their characters as sufficient for all the needs of human life and thought, as full and complete, wanting nothing. In their six-fold classification, writes one author, the written characters embrace all the topics with which man can be concerned, the visible phenomena of heaven, the unseen laws of earth, human affairs, and the rules appointed for lower nature. [28] For many ages the Chinese knew little of other peoples and essay other tongues, and thought and spoke of all that was not Chinese with undisguised contempt. But intercourse with foreign nations introduced at least a partial knowledge of other languages, and the Chinese had to compare their own perfectly harmonised speech with the shrike-tongued cries of barbarians, and their own matchless characters with the mere imitations of bird and beast footprints used by the undeveloped savages who had never been blessed with divine philosophers. One of the marks whereby a barbarian is known is that he writes from an unexpected kindness essay left to right, another being that he takes his food without using chop-sticks. When Buddhism came into the country its missionaries taught the Chinese a new language with sages and writings which they could not despise. They could not put this new language in the same class with the rude dialects of their unlettered neighbours; and they went so far as to learn from the strangers how to cultivate and improve their own language. Thus the Buddhist scholars, whether native or foreign, taught moderation and even modesty in the comparison between Chinese and Sankrit.

One author tells his readers that there are three original or primitive systems of writing. Essay. The earliest is that invented by Brahma, which proceeds from left to right; the second in antiquity is that invented by Kharoshta, which is written from right to left; and the third and latest is that invented by Tsang-chie, which goes from above downward. But one of the most interesting native opinions on this subject is that given by Morrison, taken from a treatise well written and scholarly, but defaced by blunders and marriage counseling marred by a spirit sometimes illiberal. It appears to me, says the author, as translated by Morrison, that the people of Fan ( i.e. English Essay Jokes. , India) distinguished sounds; and with them the essay malaysian stress is laid on the sounds, not on the letters. Chinese distinguish the characters, and lay the stress on the characters, not on the sounds. Hence in the language of Fan there is an endless variety of english essay jokes sound; with the Chinese there is an endless variety of the character. Marriage Counseling Essay. In Fan, the principles of sound excite an admiration, but the letters are destitute of beauty; in Chinese, the english essay characters are capable of ever-varying intelligible modifications, but the sounds are not possessed of nice and minute distinctions.

The people of Fan prefer the sounds, and what they obtain enters by the ear; the Chinese prefer the beautiful character, what they obtain enters by the eye. Counseling Essay. [29] Within the last few years Western writing has received consideration from at least one native scholar. This author has given a short comparison of it with Chinese, and written of it in a liberal spirit in his little essay, A Plea for english jokes, the Preservation of on social web Foreign Writing. [30]

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Clothing Retail Store Business Plan Sample. By Legal Templates • February 4, 2016 • Business Plan Samples. Style Villain is a Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina based clothes retail business located in the Town Center on essay jokes, Highway 17 North. Style Villain will focus on marketing medium to high end articles of clothing targeted at college students and young professionals. Style Villain aims to market clothing that is more mature than AF or American Eagle, but remains affordable to young professionals and college students, while retaining a “young” vibe.

Andrea Watson is a professional designer and entrepreneur originally hailing from Baltimore, MD. She has over 15 years of death is a and unusual punishment essay experience designing for major brands such as Uniqlo, Gap, and Fruit of the Loom. Ms. Watson’s intends to leverage her successful career and numerous industry contacts to strike out and create her own clothing brand. Style Villain will market all types of clothing for english, both men and papers women, including casual, semi-casual, and professional outfits. The company will also sell hats, belts, scarves, and jewelry, all of which will complement each other to sell complete outfits. Style Villain will aim to create trendy, fashionable clothing and accessories with a youthful edge. Style Villain’s main customers will be teenagers, college students, and young professionals, estimated between age 18-35.

Our products will be priced appropriately to be affordable for english, people within this age group. We anticipate that our target customers will on the whole possess less disposable cash than customers outside of our target age range. Marketing for Style Villain will be done through signage, flyers, coupons, direct mail, billboards, strategic business relationships, Internet and kindness essay social media. Each marketing aspect will require a cohesive strategy that is mutually reinforcing to get the most benefit. A more detailed strategy can be viewed in the Marketing and Sales chapter of english this business plan. Financial Forecast and Required Funds. The company anticipates earning $160,600 in net profits by the end of year three. In order to remain cash solvent during the first year of startup, the company will require $75,000 to cover the costs of salaries, an initial marketing blitz, and other incidental costs.

Ms. Watson will provide $30,000 of her own money, and take a $45,000 loan from the Bank of America to satisfy startup cost needs. Read a detailed guide for how to write an executive summary here. Get your business started today. Style Villain is papers, based and incorporated in South Carolina. The business was formed on August 1, 2014, and serves the english local market of the town of Mt. Pleasant. The company expects to attain significant market share of college age students and young professionals looking to appear fresh and stylish. Andrea Dawson has more than 15 years in the design industry and holds a master’s in fashion management. Beginning as a low-level designer and seamstress, she quickly rose in the ranks of companies such as Uniqlo and Fruit of the Loom due to her eye for contemporary fashion and strong product development instincts. Article. Eventually, after serving on the board of Soma Design Co., she decided to strike out on her own and form her own brand.

Ms. Dawson brings over a decade of experiences and deep industry contacts to the table, which will help lubricate the otherwise tedious processes of starting a clothing company. Style Villain will require $75,000 in startup costs to remain solvent over essay jokes, the first year. Low profit margins, staffing requirements, and an initial advertising blitz will consume the first year’s profits and require a bank loan of on social $45,000 for the company to remain cash flow positive. Ms. Jokes. Dawson will supply the other $30,000 in initial startup funds. By the second year, profits will exceed spending. By the third year, the bank loan will be paid off entirely.

Style Villain will provide young professionals a striking alternative to the usual chain brands, while remaining affordable and counseling fashionable. Easy, casual, fun. Style Villain was conceived by Ms. Dawson in 2013 while she served on the board of Soma Design Co. Ms.

Dawson recognized that there was a market opening for edgier design as “big brand” clothing retailers continued a trend towards homogeneousness. Style Villain will be located on 1210 Belk Drive in essay, the Mt. Pleasant Towne Center. A map of the Towne Center facility is shown below: Style Villain is located on the heavily trafficked path to the movie theater. Style Villain will feature a diverse range of clothing that adhere to a professional, modern style. Included below is a full list of our featured items: For manufacturing, Style Villain will be working with Solomon Rose Co., a clothing manufacturer based in South Carolina. Fabrics will be sourced from Carolina Cotton Works.

Ms. Dawson has negotiated excellent terms with both companies, using her contacts within the fashion and design industry. Despite the higher base costs, Ms. Dawson insists on using US based manufacturers for article essay, three major reasons. First, overseas manufacturers often create poor quality products, and are difficult to communicate with. English Essay. Secondly, overseas manufacturers are also gaining a bad reputation amongst socially conscientious millennials, Style Villain’s target customers.

Thirdly, overseas manufacturers require a large quantity of death penalty is a cruel punishment essay orders, which a small boutique like Style Villain does not require. The clothing retail industry is fiercely competitive, and Style Villain’s location in the Towne Center is a high-competition location itself. English Jokes. However, the act of kindness essay Towne Center also brings in a high volume of customers daily, which helps to english essay, nullify the adverse effects of a competitive market location. Within the Towne Center, our main competitors will be Belk, American Eagle, Abercrombie Fitch, Amelia’s, and Gap. The companies target a similar range of customers, mostly overlapping around millennials, generation X, and teenagers. Style Villain will be aiming for millennial customers looking to wear stylish, high quality clothing that isn’t “brand name” or mass marketed. Any and all designs created by Ms. Essay Malaysian. Dawson or others for Style Villain will immediately be under copyright. English Essay Jokes. Style Villain will aggressively pursue copyright infringers within the full extent of the law. Ms. Is A. Dawson hopes to open a sister shop in english essay jokes, Savannah, GA if Style Villain is successful in is a and unusual punishment, Mt.

Pleasant. Clothing retail in Mt. Pleasant, SC follows similar trends in affluent cities across the United States. The average yearly salary of a Mt. Pleasant resident is essay jokes, $52,000 per on social web year, and essay cost of living in lower than in most parts of the country. This means that Mt. Essays Web. Pleasant residents have a higher than average amount expendable income. Associates at the company will be knowledgable and jokes friendly.

The improving economy is also improving consumer confidence across the United States. Taking a narrower view, Mt. Pleasant itself experiencing an lifestyle, economic boom due to Google’s server warehouse and Boeing’s factory expansion into the Mt. Pleasant suburbs. Mt. Pleasant is experiencing an influx of affluent families hailing from the north. Business across Mt. Pleasant and english jokes Charleston are beginning to boom and expand due to the influx of new money. There is a market need for new clothing retail shops to meet the demand of act of new customers.

In addition, the clothing tastes and trends in the south are different from the jokes north. On Social Web. Style Villain will move away from classic southern styles like khakis and polo shirts and essay target an edgier, less traditional niche. Ms. Dawson’s designs aim to fuse southern and northern sensibilities, while keeping a high quality, classy aesthetic. “Omnichannel” retailing is essay, quickly becoming the norm for smaller retailers who are looking to edge out bigger companies with stronger brands. “Omnichannel” marketing allows for the customer to complete transactions in any way that they want to — for instance, they can order clothing online, and return it to the store physically. Style Villain will work to english, make the purchase and return process as streamlined and efficient as possible for customers. Style Villain will also accept payments through mobile wallets to facilitate business, save money on transactions, and essay lifestyle keep up with millennial trends.

Mt. Pleasant and Charleston area businesses are set to essay jokes, expand rapidly as affluent families move from the north. Death Is A Cruel Punishment. Not only is Mt. Pleasant growing due to Google and Boeing’s expansion into the area, but also because it is essay jokes, consistently being voted the number one city in death is a and unusual punishment, the US (for the third consecutive year.) Charleston is officially “on the map” for essay, retirees, college students, and people looking for a change of pace in their lifestyles. Style Villain will be set to capture this growing market on its upswing, and make a name for itself as a provider of quality, stylish garments. Key customers for Style Villain will be college students and young professionals, age ranging from 18-35. These customers will either hail from affluent families or themselves have decent salaries and expendable income.

Market research suggests that millennials in this age group in act of kindness essay, the Mt. Pleasant area are looking for new, unique clothing options from the usual fare. Ms. English Jokes. Dawson will aim to provide this valuable market segment with interesting designs that match their budding personalities and ambitions. Marketing for Style Villain will be conducted across all channels. Signage, newspaper, flyers, brochures, online, social media, word-of-mouth, strategic alliances, and coupon strategies will all be used in tandem to market the company’s products.

Style Villain will be competing with several large clothing retail stores with strong brands, as well as boutiques. The company will aim to compete indirectly with these other companies by carving out a unique niche for itself. Ms. Dawson recognizes an opening in the market to target youth and research papers technology young professionals looking for a unique, stylish, and classy look that breaks away from the traditionally southern styles that have dominated Charleston for english essay jokes, decades. Market research done by the company has revealed that Mt. Research Papers In Electrical Technology. Pleasant is ready for Ms.

Dawson’s design vision — people are ready to try new styles and are excited by the prospect of purchasing products from Style Villain. Pricing for Style Villain will be higher than average for english essay, shops overlapping within the same niche. Concept “Made in America” tag. There are three major reasons for the increased price: The raw materials are being sourced and the products are being manufactured in the USA The raw materials and labor are ethical and green The quality of the company’s products is article, higher and more durable than that of our competition.

Despite these three added costs, Style Villain’s prices will still be extremely competitive, measuring tens of dollars higher than companies overlapping within our niche. Ms. Dawson believes that millennials will be willing to buy a higher quality, ethical product for a little more money. Promotion of english Style Villain’s goods will be a “kitchen sink” strategy. The company will advertise across all channels, including old media and new media. Coupons will be used to increase brand recognition. Advertising will be organized and cohesive across all media channels to ensure maximum exposure, participation, and sharing amongst Charleston/Mt. Pleasant residents. Initial marketing tactics will be heavily coupon and sale based to draw in article essay, customers. Customers in english, the store will be able to earn further sales by checking in, “liking” the store page, or sharing the store with friends over any form of kindness essay social media.

Billboard signage will be purchased for a month during the english essay jokes initial startup phase, and coupon flyers will be mailed out to The Brickyard and Dunes West communities to draw in initial customers and create a client base. The company’s products will be distributed from the essays on social web retail location in the Towne Center, and english will deliver to marriage counseling essay, areas within the english southeast. Cruel And Unusual Punishment Essay. The company has plans to jokes, expand its delivery service to the entire United States within three years. Year 1, Month 1: Website Set Up. Year 2, Month 6: Delivery to entire continental USA. Year 3, Month 6: Expansion of sister store to Savannah, GA. 1. Company is eco-friendly and labor friendly. Style Villain has several strong points that make it a competitive player in the retail clothing boutique niche. First, it’s an ethical company, both in terms of an unexpected act of kindness environmental impact and human rights. Ms. English Essay. Dawson is an award winning designer.

The company’s partner manufacturers are based in counseling, the United States, and materials are being sourced from US based growers within the southeast. The company’s carbon footprint is small, and english essay jokes its entire growing and manufacturing process is labor friendly. 2. CEO is well connected and on social experienced. Ms. Dawson brings over a decade of experience in clothing design, retail, and marketing for english essay jokes, major brands. She brings with her an award-winning clothing design sense, and contacts within the industry. An Unexpected Kindness. Due to her contacts, she was able to negotiate favorable terms with the manufacturers, allowing her to keep prices competitive despite the extra costs of english jokes US labor and materials sourcing.

Despite the favorable terms negotiated by Ms. Dawson with the company’s partner manufacturers, prices will nonetheless be higher than our direct and marriage indirect competitors. However, according to market research, our target market is english essay jokes, willing to spend more money on high quality items that are eco-friendly and marriage labor friendly. English. Style Villain’s higher prices will be couched in heavy marketing, ensuring customers are aware that they are purchasing a product that aligns with their value systems. Ms. Dawson sees an opportunity to expand Style Villain into Savannah, GA, provided the store is successful in death penalty and unusual essay, Mt. Pleasant, as these two cities share a similar aesthetic and appeal.

Mt. Pleasant’s rapid expansion means that there are several other entrepreneurs who will also be opening boutique clothing shops. Ms. Dawson’s contacts in essay, the industry and familiarity with the business will allow her to navigate the complications of running a retail business, giving her an research papers, edge amongst her new competitors. If you have a small business, check out our other legal forms, like a Non-Disclosure Agreement template. Crafted by english essay licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is an unexpected act of essay, not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of jokes law.

Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to counseling, our Terms of Use.