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Local Citation Analysis of Graduate Biology Theses: Collection Development Implications. Science Engineering Librarian. Copyright 2011, Laura Newton Miller. Used with permission. MacOdrum Library is a central supporting body of Carleton University (Ottawa, Canada), a research-intensive institution that serves the academic needs of approximately 24,000 undergraduate and graduate students (Carleton University Library 2008). As Science and Engineering Librarian at Carleton University, the researcher wanted to make sure the Library was meeting the college essays, needs of the biology graduate students. Carleton's Biology Department offers undergraduate, masters, and doctoral programs. In 2007/2008 the department had 109 graduate students enrolled in programs (77 in Masters and essay students 32 in PhD) (Office of Institutional Research and Planning, Carleton University 2009). Although informal feedback from students and faculty is important, the researcher wanted more formalized evidence to support the biology department's research needs. A survey was conducted in 2009 to assess the kinds of college essays, resources graduate students were using to find information for their research projects. This survey combined questions that focused on graduate students' perceptions of their library research needs and skills with questions that centered on the students' library research abilities (Newton Miller 2009).
A mixed-methods approach can look at an issue from a variety of angles (Beck 2008) and give more detailed information for writing use in collection management (deVries, Kelley Storm 2009) and college instruction. A local citation analysis was therefore conducted to examine what graduate students used in their research theses and how this could affect future collection development decisions. This paper will focus on the citation analysis of graduate masters theses from Carleton University's Biology Department. Citation analysis is the systematic, quantitative study of works cited. It is part of the broader field of bibliometrics, the application of mathematical and statistical methods in dissertation, the use of documents and publication pattern (Osareh 1996, as cited in Black 2001). In contrast to information use studies that ask students or faculty what journals they use for their research (Rolinson et al. 1996 and help Brown (2005)), citation analysis is an unobtrusive method for journal collection evaluation purposes (Sylvia 1998). Citation analysis for collection development management can come in a variety of writing format, forms.
Some study specific journals or a group of essays, journals to determine a core collection for what makes you happy supplement essay the library. College Essays. In an early citation analysis, Gross and makes supplement Gross (1927) researched the frequency of citations in the Journal of the American Chemical Society to ascertain what journals were needed most to help prepare students for advanced study and to support the stimulation and intellectual development of the faculty (Gross Gross 1927). Budd (1988) analyzed the citations in three core education journals to determine how research is help college communicated within that discipline. Black (2001) collected citation information of two leading journals to form a base for a core collection in communication disorders. Thesis. Delendick (1990) studied the citations within three prominent journals in plant systematics.
He found that although some of the citations referenced in the three journals appeared in college essays, Science Citation Index, many more citations were represented in Biological Abstracts. This helped the researcher determine that Biological Abstracts was the better tool for speech those studying systematic botany at that time. Journal Citation Reports is often used as a tool for collection development. Journal Citation Reports ranks journals by help essays using citation frequency of what makes essay, journal articles to measure the journal's impact in a particular field (Thomson Reuters 2010a). This is help college essays a very useful tool for librarians to establish knowledge of core journals in a discipline, but it does not necessarily represent a local library's particular needs.
Crotteau (1997) examined the library's support for biological research by case on schizophrenia in nursing comparing the citations within faculty publications to rankings in Journal Citation Reports. He found that comparing two rank orders can be misleading when the ranks of individual titles could vary by as many as 60 to 80 positions. He discovered that it may be more useful to essays state that a journal is more or less cited by local faculty than by format the wider scientific community (Crotteau 1997). Joswick and Stierman (1997) found significant differences between the ranking of journals used by students and faculty and rankings provided in Journal Citation Reports, revealing the importance of local citation studies in collection development. Some citation analyses focus on particular groups of users. Lascar and Mendelsohn (2001) and Crotteau (1997) examined the help essays, references within biology faculty papers. Case On Schizophrenia. Lascar and Mendelsohn (2001) used citation analysis to study structural biology faculty from several institutions. Because structural biology is a multidisciplinary field, the authors discovered that it is help college essays important not to overemphasize the value of established, multidisciplinary journals. Narrow-focused, smaller periodicals also need to high be considered within a collection budget (Lascar Mendelsohn 2001).
Another way to scrutinize faculty use of journals is by determining where they publish their papers. Help. Stankus (2010) examined whether or not the placing of entomology faculty in different departments at various universities influenced where they published their work. Although many publish in the same journals, there are differences in where arts and sciences entomology faculty publish than those who work in agricultural departments. Of Internet. This is helpful in prioritizing collection development and budgeting decisions (Stankus 2010). References used in honors undergraduate papers have been the focus of some citation analyses. These can be a great resource of information not only for libraries serving undergraduates, but also for those libraries trying to college essays determine the needs of possible future graduate students. Submission Thesis. Leiding (2005) studied undergraduate papers from a number of academic departments, which helped in ascertaining the different needs between various disciplines.
Kraus (2004) researched the college, citation patterns of advanced undergraduate biology students and in a later paper (Kraus 2005) compared the differences between citation usage of undergraduates and faculty in the biology department. Decisions regarding the purchasing of journal archive back files are important issues in collection development management. In order to determine the need to school students purchase specific back files, Nabe and Imre (2008) examined citations to resources dating before or after 1996 (many archival purchases have content before this particular year). Knowing the age of citation references can be another important factor in collection management. Graduate students are heavy users of library resources, and theses and dissertations are often readily available (Brazzeal Fowler 2005). This makes them a well-known user group for citation analysis. Williams and Fletcher (2006) studied the materials used by graduate students in engineering to direct library collection development decisions. Citation analyses often compare to essays past studies to writing build on the literature. The current citation analysis on graduate biology masters theses has the benefit of essays, citation analyses conducted by writing and disadvantages of internet Kuruppu and Moore (2008) and by Walcott (1994). Both analyses focused on help college graduate biology theses, and both further broke down their rankings by subject specialties within biology. On Advantages. Pancheshnikov (2007) also studied graduate biology student theses and compared these to the literature citations in faculty publications as a way of help college essays, making informed decisions regarding collection development management.
Collecting data using similar methods to past citation analyses makes them easier to compare with past studies (Kraus 2004). The researcher asked the following questions: What is the percentage of students' citations to journals? books? web sites? government documents? miscellaneous resources? What is the average number of citations per student paper? What are the top cited journals by number of citations? What are the top cited journals by writing on advantages and disadvantages number of help essays, citing authors?
What is the age range of journal citations? What percentage of journals is essay and disadvantages of internet available in the Carleton Library catalogue? What are the reasons for not having a particular journal? What are the top cited journals for particular biological research areas? The researcher initially searched the Carleton University Library catalogue by conducting a keyword search for biolog*, with a location theses and a year after 2006 and before 2010.
The search was further narrowed by locating theses with the added author Carleton University. Dissertation. Biology. Twenty-five Masters theses were found in total; 15 from 2008 and help college essays ten from 2007. When in doubt, the researcher went by the date of imprint on the thesis to determine the study on schizophrenia, year (in other words, when the thesis was published, as opposed to essays when the student may have actually graduated).
Theses from 2009 were not included in the study as many were not yet available electronically or were in format, the process of being bound at the time of analysis. The researcher used Proquest's Dissertations and Theses at Carleton University (Proquest 2010) (a subset of Proquest's bigger Dissertations and help essays Theses database) to print off the writing format, title page and reference section of help college, each thesis. Each dissertation was given a unique identification number. Using a method used by other researchers (Kraus 2004) that was developed by stakes testing Chandra G. Prabha (Prabha 1996 as cited in essays, Kraus 2004), materials such as annuals, monographic series, and other irregular serials were not counted as journal articles. Study In Nursing. These were instead coded as B-annual and grouped as books. Each citation was given one of the help college essays, following codes: Journals or magazines - J Books or book chapters - B Annuals or monographic series - B-annual Web site (non-governmental)- W Miscellaneous- MIS MIS - Gov Doc (even if it is a web site or database) MIS - Report (includes technical papers, protocols) MIS - Conference MIS - Software MIS - Thesis MIS - Other (includes data repository, article submitted to journal but not in on advantages and disadvantages, review process, product (i.e., Roundup), newspaper, pamphlet, software manual, survey, personal observation, user's guide) To verify that a reference was a journal, the researcher checked citations in Ulrich's (Proquest Serials Editing Department 2009) and in Worldcat (OCLC 2010). If the title was not found in college essays, Ulrich's or Worldcat and the citation did not fall under another category, the researcher coded as MIS-other. The researcher made the assumption that the materials the essay school students, Library owned in 2010 (when the help college, study was conducted) were also available to students while they were conducting research (i.e., 2006-2008). Essay School. Although the researcher acknowledges that there is a chance database content may have changed in that time period, the task of determining dates of periodical acquirement was not feasible given the time to conduct the study.
Web of Science (Thomson Reuters 2010b) was used to essays check any ambiguous citation to get proper bibliographic information. (i.e. when citation had incorrect date or journal name). Ages of journal citations were determined by calculating the difference between the imprint year of the thesis and the age of a particular cited publication. For example, if a thesis was published in format, 2008 and a journal citation was from help, 1998, then the dissertation high stakes, difference between these two numbers would make the citation 10 years old. To determine whether or not Carleton University Library owned or had access to a cited journal article, the researcher checked the help, library's catalogue. Students checking the catalogue for a journal title may find that the on advantages and disadvantages, library has the title, but not the particular year the student needs. In order to ascertain the specifics for not having access to a particular journal article, the help essays, citations were coded as follows: Don't have - Not found in catalogue at all. Never had subscription.
Used to Have - Had at one time but cancelled subscription. (Having a significant number of these could give reason to revisit a subscription). Have now - Didn't have older copy but have current subscription. (This may give reason to purchase a back file). Don't have that year - This sometimes occurs when the library has an older subscription that was cancelled and then repurchased. This also occurs when there is an embargo on a journal. (The library may want to seek out copies that are missing in submission, the years between subscriptions). Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation 2003) and IBM SPSS Statistics 18 (SPSS Inc. 2009) were used to tabulate results. The researcher calculated the help college essays, frequency with which each journal was cited.
Williams and submission Fletcher (2006) point out that multiple citations of a title by help a single author can greatly affect the writing, ranking of a journal. For this reason, the researcher also used a unique thesis ID to calculate the frequency of authors citing a particular journal. To analyze theses by biological research area (as determined by the Carleton University Biology Department) (Carleton Biology Department 2009), the researcher examined Library of Congress Subject Headings from essays, individual thesis catalogue records, and cross-referenced with subject headings used in Proquest's Digital Dissertations (Proquest 2010). All 25 theses were sorted into case the following categories for further analysis. Cell Molecular Biology Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior Biochemistry and help essays Physiology Biotechnology and Bioinformatics. Past studies have divided biological specialties in different ways (Kuruppu Moore 2008; Walcott 1994).
Because this is a local citation analysis, it was important for the researcher to divide specialties into groups similar to essay students how Carleton University's Biology Department references these research areas to ensure the information needs can be met as specifically as possible. There were a total of 2,783 citations in the 25 Masters theses analyzed for essays this study. The average (mean) number of citations per thesis was 111 citations. The median was very close to what you happy the mean at 114 citations. The highest number of citations in a thesis was 191, and help college essays the lowest number was 44. Journals accounted for 2,340 citations, or 84% of the total.
This seems to coincide with results of dissertation high stakes, similar studies, including Kraus (2004) who found that 76.2% of biology undergraduate students' honors references were to journal articles. McCain and Bobick (1981) found that 91% of citations were to journals in faculty publications and help essays doctoral dissertations and Walcott (1994) discovered that graduate biology students cited journals in the 80-95% range, depending on the subject specialty. Submission Thesis. Kuruppu and Moore (2008) determined doctoral students in agriculture and biology cited journal articles 80.5% of the help, time. Books (including annuals) accounted for 11% of high stakes testing, total citations. Government documents accounted for 2% of total documents, web sites were 0.7% of help essays, total citations, and miscellaneous items accounted for 3% of the total citations. (See Table 1 and Table 2) Books (includes annuals) Table 2: Listing of Miscellaneous Citations.
For many researchers, especially in the sciences, Google is the first choice for information -- all kinds of information (Haglund Olsson 2008). The researcher ascertained from a local survey of biology graduate students that although they make use of case study, traditional electronic databases (e.g., Proquest's Biological Sciences), Google Scholar and Google are used to a greater extent for theses research (Newton Miller 2009). The low number of web site citations may be the result of graduate advisors discouraging their students from help essays, citing web sites. Essay Writing On Advantages And Disadvantages. Web sites that were from government departments were considered a government document (and not a web site). This may have changed the numbers slightly. Help College Essays. Kraus (2004) also found a low number of web sites cited by undergraduate biology students. Kraus found that although many science faculty and students were using electronic resources to case study in nursing access scholarly materials, they were not citing the help, use of web sites as sources, or the Internet as a means of delivery of scholarly information (Kraus 2004). Title dispersion is determined as the degree to which the useful literature in a field is scattered through a number of books and journals (Walcott 1994). The journal title dispersion for this study is 546, which means that 546 individual journal titles were needed to cover 100% of the journal citations.
Walcott (1994) discovered a rather low number of 295 titles for dissertation stakes testing her study of graduate biology student theses citations, although with the proliferation of journal titles since that time, the difference in numbers is perhaps not that surprising. Many citation analyses, including Brazzeal and Fowler (2005), Pancheshnikov (2007) and Black (2001), demonstrate the 80/20 Rule, which suggests that 80% of the cited articles reside in 20% of the cited journals (Bradford 1953). In this study, the top 46 titles (8.4%) (by frequency of citation) cover 50.4% of all journal citations. Brazzeal and Fowler (2005), who researched the information usage patterns of graduate students in forestry, found that 7.0% of all cited journals accounted for 50% of all journal citations. In her study of graduate biology students, Walcott (1994) found that the top 22 titles covered 50% of college essays, all citations. The current research reveals a total of 77 journals (14%) accounted for 80% of all citations, which is very comparable to the findings of Brazzeal and Fowler (2005) who found that 70 journals accounted for 80% of the citations. The researcher found a total of 77 titles out of the 546 individual journals (14%) were cited only once. In her study of graduate students and faculty use of biological sources, Pancheshnikov (2007) found that 50% of journal titles in faculty publications and 45% from student theses were cited only once. Ranking of Journal Citations- Frequency of Citation Versus Number of Authors Citing. When conducting a citation analysis, a well accepted method for determining core journal lists is to makes you happy rank journals by frequency of citations (Kuruppu Moore 2008; Kraus 2005; LaBonte 2005; Walcott 1994).
However, Williams and Fletcher (2006) assert in their study of engineering graduate students' citations that multiple citations of help college, a title by a single author can affect the rankings of journal. Case On Schizophrenia In Nursing. This study examined the rankings of journals by frequency and by number of authors citing and found variations in the order of rank. Help College Essays. Table 3 includes the top 46 titles by frequency of what makes supplement essay, citation (8.4%) that covers 50.4% of help college essays, all journal citations in this study. The table also shows the percentage of essay writing, total authors who cite a particular journal in the list. Table 4 includes a rank order of journal titles by help college number of speech writing format, authors citing. Table 3: Top Cited Journals Ranked by Total Number of Citations (some ties) Journal of Biological Chemistry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of college, Experimental Biology. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, integrative comparative physiology. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Trends in Ecology and thesis Evolution. Genes and Development. Molecular and Cellular Biology. Plant Molecular Biology. Journal of Fish Biology.
Journal of Chemical Ecology. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Journal of Ecology. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology A: Molecular Integrative Physiology. Nucleic Acids Research. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. Journal of Experimental Zoology. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences. Trends in Plant Science.
American Journal of Botany. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B. Table 4: Journals Ranked by Number of help, Authors Citing (total # authors= 25) Number of Citing Authors. Percentage of Total Authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Journal of writing, Biological Chemistry. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Journal of Experimental Biology. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Genes and Development.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Nucleic Acids Research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. In this study, a total of 333 (61%) of the 546 journals are cited by essays only one author, although they may be cited more than once by that author. (See Table 5). Table 5: Number of Citing Authors Compared to Number of Cited Journals.
Percentage of submission, Total Journals. Of the 2,340 total journal citations, the average (mean) age of journal citations for biology masters theses at Carleton University was 10.6 years. The median age was 8 years, and the mode (the most frequently occurring age) was 4 years old. This is help essays very similar to the results of Kraus' study of undergraduate biology majors (Kraus 2004) where the average age was 10.65 years. Kuruppu and what you happy supplement Moore (2008) stated results in a different way: 90% of the citations (all formats) were less than 24 years old, and college essays the oldest citation was 173 years old. The oldest journal citation in this current study was 174 years old, and the youngest was 0. Essay On Advantages And Disadvantages. (i.e. Help College. citation was from the year the student published his/her thesis). Percentage of Journals Accessible by Carleton Library Catalogue. Crotteau (1997) examined the citation patterns of faculty in the Department of Biology at University of you happy tufts, North Carolina. He found that 65% of essays, total journal citations had complete library holdings, 23% had partial holdings, and 12% had no holdings. Williams and Fletcher (2006) found local library holdings for 82% of makes you happy supplement essay, journals cited in engineering theses.
This researcher decided to examine in more detail the reasons for a student not being able to locate a journal. In other words, instead of stating the library had partial holdings, the researcher studied just what a partial holding meant. When a journal article cited was not shown to be in the Carleton University Library catalogue, it was marked CU-N. The citation was further marked as Don't Have, Used to Have, Have Now, and Don't Have That Year. The researcher found library holdings for 93% of the journal articles cited. Of the help, 2,340 total journal citations, there were 170 incidents (7% of total) where Carleton did not have the dissertation, journal paper required. Of this 7% of incidents that Carleton University Library did not have in its catalogue, the researcher found the following: Don't Have that Year. The following table shows the frequency of the top five journal citations that were not found in the Library catalogue:
Table 7: Top Journal Citations Not Available in Library Catalogue. Frequency of CU-N. (out of 2340 total cit) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. Biochemical Society Transactions.
Cell Death and Differentiation. Top Ranking Journals by Research Area. Carleton University's Biology Department divides their research into four main areas: Cell and Molecular Biology; Ecology, Evolution and Behavior; Biochemistry and Physiology; and Biotechnology and help college essays Bioinformatics (Carleton Biology Department 2009). The following table breaks down the 25 graduate theses by research area: Table 8: Graduate Research Areas (Biological Sciences) at Carleton University. Cell Molecular Biology. Ecology, Evolution and essay for high school Behavior. Biochemistry and Physiology. Biotechnology and Bioinformatics. Because biotechnology and bioinformatics were not represented in theses for masters students in the time period studied, the help essays, researcher will focus on the three remaining research areas. (Biotechnology and bioinformatics was being studied by writing school PhD students during that time period).
Because of the interdisciplinary nature of some of the theses papers, some dissertations could fall into more than one category which could skew the journal frequency results. (For example, theses that focused on college essays the molecular biology of plants cited plant-specific journals, which may not necessarily always be labeled top-ranking in Cell and Molecular Biology). Presenting the number of authors citing these journals should help compensate for this bias. Table 9: Top Ranking Journals in Cell and Molecular Biology Theses. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Plant Molecular Biology.
Table 10: Journals Ranked by Number of Authors Citing: Cell and submission Molecular Biology (8 authors total) (some ties) Number of Citing Authors. Percentage of college, Total Authors. Journal of Biological Chemistry. Proceedings of the case on schizophrenia in nursing, National Academy of Science.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Genes and Development. Molecular and Cellular Biology. Nucleic Acids Research. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Trends in Cell Biology. Table 11: Top Ranking Journals in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior Theses (some ties) Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Journal of essays, Experimental Biology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Journal of Chemical Ecology. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Journal of Ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Table 12: Journals Ranked by Number of case study in nursing, Authors Citing: Ecology, Evolution and Behavior (9 authors total) (some ties) Number of Citing Authors (9 max) Percentage of college, Total Authors. Trends in Ecology and study on schizophrenia Evolution.
Proceedings of the National Academy of help, Science. Canadian Journal of Zoology. Journal of Applied Ecology. Table 13: Top Ranking Journals in Biochemistry and Physiology Theses (some ties) Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of Experimental Biology. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Table 14: Journals Ranked by Number of Authors Citing: Biochemistry and Physiology (8 authors total) (some ties)
Number of Citing Authors (8 max) Percentage of Total Authors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Archives of stakes, Biochemistry and college Biophysics. Biochemical and essay Biophysical Research Communications. Biochemical Society Transactions. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. Journal of help, Biological Chemistry. Journal of case study, Experimental Biology. Carleton University Library is doing well in terms of periodical library holdings. Having 93% is a very acceptable number but one must be cautious of that result.
Citation analysis only help college, measures what students used in their formal research. Essay Writing. It does not measure what a student may have informally consulted on a day-to-day basis (Swanepoel 2008). Citation analysis is unable to show what a student decided not to help college use because of its unavailability in for high students, the library. Because Carleton University is located in the national capital, further research should be undertaken to examine how many journal citations unavailable in Carleton's library were obtainable at nearby University of help college essays, Ottawa. Since graduate students frequently use Google and Google Scholar, and as the open access movement continues to grow, further research is needed to determine how many journal citations were available through open access or from an open archive. Although citation analysis is a useful tool for determining collection development needs, it is not without its challenges. It became quite clear that a few students need more help creating their reference lists.
Verifying whether or not a citation was in essay, the catalogue became more time-consuming than expected because of incorrect dates and incorrect or incomplete journal titles. For example, a title with parts A, B and help C can be in three different journals. Leaving some of the title information out of the citation necessitates more investigation by the researcher to high get the correct reference. However, students were not always the ones at fault. The researcher compiled a list of library catalogue records that needed to be cleaned up.
This could mean anything from duplicate records to incorrect dates in the catalogue. Essays. Although these various delays were for a small percentage of citations, it is important to take note of the potential time consumed for those interested in pursuing similar projects. Citation analysis has the benefit of finding trends that can help determine what databases and other library tools need to be promoted in the library. Because of the challenges found in incomplete journal references, the writing for high school students, researcher plans to work more with biology students and faculty regarding proper citation formatting and help college will further promote bibliographic management programs such as RefWorks. How do the results of this study affect future collection development?
Strained collection budgets sometimes force librarians to make difficult cancellation decisions. The researcher now has core journal lists within specific biological fields by frequency of citation and by number of submission thesis, times an author cites a resource. Using these lists in conjunction with lists produced by Journal Citation Reports can help a librarian determine what should stay in the collection while maintaining equality throughout the help college, various subfields. Finding out what you happy why a student is essays not able to locate a journal in the catalogue is more beneficial than only study in nursing, knowing that the library has full, partial, or no holdings. The researcher discovered it very valuable to organize journal citations that were not in the catalogue into categories of Don't Have, Used to Have, Have Now and Don't Have That Year. It is frustrating for help college essays a patron to not find a journal title needed for his/her research. Speech. It is even more infuriating when the journal title is in the catalogue, but not the particular year the patron needs. Why does the library not have a specific year? Do we need to consider a back file purchase? Should we revisit a cancelled subscription? The researcher now has a list of the top journal titles that were not available in the library catalogue, the number of times students were not able to access, reasons why they were not able to access, and the number of help essays, students trying to access those titles.
The librarian can use this information to determine the requirement to purchase a back file or to revisit a cancelled subscription. Knowing the age of citations is valuable when examining space requirements for the library. Like many other institutions, space is at a premium at Carleton University Library and there is pressure to weed or move things to a storage facility located on campus. Libraries can purchase electronic back files of journal collections and thesis move the older hardcopy equivalents into storage (or weed entirely) to free up much needed space in the library. Nabe and Imre (2008) studied plant biology and zoology dissertations and essays found that many journal citations were older than 12 years. The current research found similar averages of 10.6 years. These numbers can be starting points for examining specific back file collections.
Various questions of hardcopy versus electronic would still have to be sorted out by libraries (e.g. sometimes the stakes testing, print version is the more complete copy and college essays should remain in the library). Similar citation studies of undergraduate, doctoral and faculty papers would help to give a fuller picture of what is needed in what you happy tufts, order to essays move hardcopy journals to another location and replace with electronic back files. This particular study only focused on journal citations, but it would be very useful to further examine book citations used by on schizophrenia in nursing students and faculty to ensure the library is meeting their monographic needs. Eleven percent of theses citations were to help essays books (including annuals). With book budgets continuing to be tightly constrained, one must take a deeper look at monographic use. Science students and faculty traditionally use more journals than books, but the monographs that are purchased are usually much more expensive than those purchased for what makes you happy supplement essay humanities and social science disciplines. E-book packages are becoming a more popular (but expensive) option for libraries and college essays many are geared toward the sciences. Case Study In Nursing. Are patrons using books that come in e-book format? Citation analysis and data abstracted from e-book collections are useful tools to examine the book needs of students and faculty. Interlibrary loan statistics are valuable tools in collection management and could also be used to determine what journals, books and other formats are being found in another location.
The researcher agrees with the findings of Williams and Fletcher (2006) that although journal rankings are traditionally performed using total number of citations, the ranking by number of authors citing a source can make a difference when compiling core journal lists. As Feyereisen and Spoiden (2009) point out, libraries may need to help visit alternatives such as interlibrary loans and pay-per-view options for format infrequently used titles. Research on number of authors citing a source gives a librarian pause to think about what to do in future situations when a professor or student requests a particular journal. Are very few people going to use a resource many times? During times of fiscal restraint, the library may need to remind itself that building collections should serve the majority of the needs of the greatest number of people.
Beck, S.P. 2008. Practical Research Methods for help college Librarians and Information Professionals. Writing For High. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. Black, S. 2001. College Essays. Using citation analysis to pursue a core collection of journals for communication disorders . Library Resources Technical Services 45(1): 3-9. Brazzeal, B. Fowler, R. Writing. 2005. Patterns of information use in essays, graduate research in writing of internet, forestry . Essays. Science Technology Libraries 26(2): 91-106.
Brown, C. 2005. Where do molecular biology graduate students find information ? Science Technology Libraries 25(3): 89-104. Budd, J. 1988. A bibliometric analysis of higher education literature . Research in Higher Education 28(2): 180-190. Crotteau, M. 1997. High Stakes. Support for biological research by an academic library: A journal citation study . Science Technology Libraries 17(1): 67-86. Delendick, T.J. College Essays. 1990.
Citation analysis of the literature of makes tufts essay, systematic botany: A preliminary survey . Journal of the American Society for Information Science 41(7): 535-543. deVries, S., Kelly, R. Storm, P. M. Accepted 2009 Oct 23. Moving beyond citation analysis: How surveys and interviews enhance, enrich, and expand your research findings . College Research Libraries Preprint [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]; 1-15. Available from http://crl.acrl.org/content/early/2010/04/29/crl-45r1.full.pdf+html. Feyereisen, P. Spoiden, A. Help Essays. 2009. Can local citation analysis of master's and doctoral theses help decision-making about the management of the collection of periodicals? A case study in psychology and education sciences . Journal of Academic Librarianship 35(6): 514-522. Haglund, L. Olsson, P. 2008. The impact on university libraries of changes in information behavior among academic researchers: A multiple case study . The Journal of Academic Librarianship 34(1): 52-59.
Joswick, K. Stierman, J. 1997. The core list mirage: A comparison of the journals frequently consulted by faculty and writing on advantages students . College Research Libraries 58(1): 48-55. Kraus, J.R. 2004. Citation patterns of help essays, advanced undergraduate students in biology, 2000-2002 . Science Technology Libraries 22(3/4):161-179. Kraus, J.R. Thesis. 2005.
Comparing journal use between biology faculty and undergraduate students . Issues in Science Technology Librarianship [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]; 43 Summer 2005. Available from: http://www.istl.org/05-summer/article2.html. Kuruppu, P.U. Moore, D.C. Help. 2008. Information use by PhD students in agriculture and what makes you happy supplement essay biology: A dissertation citation analysis . Help College. portal 8(4): 387-405. LaBonte, K.B. Makes You Happy Supplement. 2005. Citation analysis: A method for collection development for a rapidly developing field . College Essays. Issues in Science Technology Librarianship [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]; 43 Summer 2005. Available from: http://www.istl.org/05-summer/refereed.html.
Lascar, C. Mendelsohn, L.D. Study In Nursing. 2001. An analysis of journal use by structural biologists with applications for journal collection development decisions . College Research Libraries 62(5): 422-433. Leiding, R. 2005. Using citation checking of help, undergraduate honors thesis bibliographies to evaluate library collections . College Research Libraries 66(5): 417-429.
McCain, K.W. Bobick, J.E. 1981. Patterns of journal use in a departmental library: A citation analysis . Journal of the American Society for Information Science 32(4): 257-267. Nabe, J. Imre, A. 2008. Dissertation citations in organismal biology at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale: Implications for collection development . Issues in Science Technology Librarianship [Internet]. [Cited 2010 Jul 10]. 55 Fall 2008.
Available from: http://www.istl.org/08-fall/refereed.html. Newton Miller, L. 2009. Information literacy assessment of biology graduate students. Unpublished manuscript. Osareh, F. 1996. Bibliometrics, citation analysis and co-citation analysis: A review of literature.
Libri 46(4): 217-225. Pancheshnikov, Y. 2007. A comparison of writing, literature citations in faculty publications and college student theses as indicators of collection use and a background for collection management at a university library . The Journal of Academic Librarianship 33(6): 674-683. Prabha, C. 1996. High Stakes Testing. Characteristics of publications sought through OCLC PRISM interlibrary loan. Annual Review of OCLC Research . [Internet]. Help College Essays. Available from.
Proquest UMI Dissertation Publishing. 2010. Dissertations and theses @ Carleton . Michigan: Proquest UMI Dissertation Publishing. Stankus, T. Tufts Supplement. 2010. Scientists who work with insects: How do arts and sciences and help college agriculture school faculty differ in where they publish ? Science Technology Libraries 29(1/2): 16-33. Swanepoel, A. 2008.
Using citation analysis to speech writing format determine the help college essays, use of information sources in the humanities by postgraduate students in essay writing for high, the health and biomedical sciences: A case study. IFLA Conference Proceedings. [Internet]. [Cited December 17, 2010]. Available from: http://archive.ifla.org/IV/ifla74/papers/124-Swanepoel-en.pdf. Sylvia, M.J. 1998. Citation analysis as an unobtrusive method for journal collection evaluation using psychology student research bibliographies . Collection Building 17(1): 20-28. Thomson Reuters. 2010a.
Journal citation reports. New York: Thomson Reuters. Walcott, R. 1994. Local citation studies - a shortcut to local knowledge . Science Technology Libraries 14(3): 1-14.
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Rick Perlstein’s article, boiled down, is simply an extended version of the bitching that every generation hears from the one that preceded it: “Back when I went to help college, school, we walked uphill in the snow both ways…” In sum, college mattered back when Mr. Tufts Supplement! Perlstein went to it because that was when he went to it. Since college has changed from when he remembered it, he wants us to believe that it has somehow degenerated into college, irrelevance. The vast majority of Perlstein’s complaints fit under the above rubric. Case! Our college experience is not as liberating as his was (no longer can we simply phone public intellectuals and bully them into visiting our dorms). College Essays! Our activists are not as radical as his were (we don’t take over enough buildings). Our connection to the Sixties isn’t as strong as his was (our band members aren’t former revolutionaries). We are not as alienated from society as he was (we engage our world, not whine about it).
Perlstein’s claim that his experience was in some way both richer and harder than the next generation’s is an old one, and is continuously echoed by every generation. Like most complaints of this type, it is largely groundless and mildly insulting. To respond to it bit by bit would validate his nostalgic whining to a degree it does not deserve. The Cultural Contradictions of submission thesis, American Universities. For the college, past twenty to thirty years, we have seen the essay, great degradation of post-secondary education. Conventional wisdom suggests that the problem lies simultaneously within the hands of the politicians and the students.
This narrative does not account for the history of college. Throughout the modern age, the role college played in help college essays, the national debate was minimal. To this date, there has only for high school been one president with a Ph.D., and both The New Deal and help college essays, Truman’s Fair Deal did relatively little for college and education in general (with the exception of the G.I. Bill). Essay! And even today, most candidates on both sides of the isle have the same prescription for essays college: the problem is lack of writing school students, funding, therefore, the solution is to help, increase funding.
It usually ends at that. In order to find the true crisis of dissertation high stakes testing, college, we must first look at its true purpose. A few months ago, Charles Murray wrote a controversial series of columns in the Wall Street Journal arguing, not that college had been written out of the national debate, but that its role is too great. Essentially, too many people are going to college who did not need college, but instead needed vocational training. There are serious problems with his logic to be sure, not the least of which is his obvious IQ-ism. While it is college, true that college is in need of some serious reforming, focusing solely on IQ will not solve them, for IQ is submission, not the only purpose of college. For example, there are, what a professor of mine called, “latent overtones.” That is, those unexpected, and unintended consequences of college learning.
For example, one might discover a great philosopher that he’s never heard of, or another collegiate finds that they enjoy a field of study which they did not expect. But this is, of course, part of the college, intellectual journey of students. College exists not, as conventional wisdom suggests, to change the culture. It exists to create a new breed of intellectuals. All politics aside, students should exit college not knowing simply what to think, but how to think.
This is where Mr. Murray and I agree. He hits the nail on case study, the head when he describes the purpose of help college, college, that college is created to train the elites to do their jobs. However, this purpose has been lost in a quagmire of watered-down curricula and fluff courses. And this brings us to the real problem of college: the searing anti-intellectualism of the youth. Education is the single most important factor in the growth of our country.
Specifically, higher education paves a future and provides opportunity for students that attend college and thesis, gives them a shot at a career. 50 years ago, college was strictly for the elite, high class Americans. Now, it seems that every common household has at least one family member attend college. But with the increasing drop out college essays rate today, students seem less interested in learning at college and their priorities change from their original goal of graduating. The importance of education today is a growing factor because the future of this country depends on dissertation high stakes, the students in help college, college today. College is misunderstood by many incoming freshman.
All of the for high, television advertisements and billboards encouraging students to help college, attend college are used as bait to reel in student’s tuition. Parents encourage their kids to attend college after graduating high school because they want to see their kids have a shot at success. However, college is speech writing format, not cut out for everyone. More freshman than ever are dropping out after their first year because college can be overwhelming through everything that takes place within campus boundaries. The pressures of college whether it’s to impress parents or maintain a high GPA grasps hold of many students while they are in college, freezing them from work and attending class regularly.
Back in the 50’s and college, 60’s when college was becoming so popular, people attended college solely to improve their education and learn through the college experience, in hopes of obtaining a career after graduation. On Advantages! Now, people attend college because their friends or girlfriend go there. Many people attend college just to party as much as possible. College can be misleading for teenagers fresh out of college, high school, and people who feel that continuing their education isn’t the most important factor in attending college should not apply. College matters because without a thoroughly educated society, America would fall to its knees and regress into submission, deep depression.
Jobs would flounder because the people applying for them wouldn’t get accepted without college degrees. Pat Brown expanded university development in essays, California in thesis, 1966 to essays, encourage people of every social class to attend college and gain a higher education. The reason for his rapid expansion was because the number of college students doubled from 1957 to 1967, and Brown decided in order to improve society and keep America running, more universities should be built to essay writing school, attract new students. However, in 1997, only 54 percent of students that attended college as freshmen graduated with a degree six years later, 30 percent not even finishing their freshman year. Once students enroll in essays, college, dropping out essay writing and disadvantages of internet is the worst decision they can make. Help College! The opportunity cost of dropping can be detrimental to a student’s financial standing. Submission Thesis! Dropping out also means dropping tuition, and students are often left with debt to pay off depending on which year they dropped out. Entering in a low paying job, drop outs must slowly pay back student loans, which is help college essays, why college is so important to stick to and graduate once enrolled. Speech Writing! The likelihood of students being able to help college, pay off student loans quickly after graduating is stakes, much greater than the likelihood of a drop out paying off loans. Help Essays! Drop outs sometimes will only make enough money per paycheck to pay off previous college debts, not leaving any left over cash for leisure activities.
Once choosing the decision to dissertation testing, attend college, remaining in college is the most important decision a student can make, in order to help, avoid living a below average lifestyle. Young adults are fed by change. No matter how resistant or welcoming I am to change, when all is said and done change sustains me. Two years as an speech format undergraduate student at Fordham University have been made slightly easier by knowing this about essays, myself, because college means change. Submission! Even with the still shrinking cyber community and the ‘real world’ opportunities offered to many young people today, nothing can replace the rush of change attached to essays, the college experience. College students are encouraged to make noise. When interviewed by Rick Perlstein for an article entitled ‘What’s the Matter With College” students were very vocal. Hamilton Morris, a New York bred college student, described a college experience where many students hate school “with a passion” and “don’t leave”.
Perlstein writes that Morris’s feelings are proof of a “culture of enervation” which overwhelms many campuses today. Instead of seeing what Perlstein describes, students without hope or the will to pursue their studies, I see Morris as describing a culture of restlessness. Writing For High School Students! Students who claim to hate college but still do not leave are experiencing a kind of restlessness which comes with the package. Students experience change so quickly–changes of passions, opinions and interests. They are bound to become restless, especially when the off-campus world is within arm’s length. I often smile to think the world is at my fingertips when I am surfing the internet, but the truth is my fingers are touching my keyboard, and I am planted in my kitchen chair drinking Diet Coke. College Essays! College offers me the speech writing format, opportunity to shake hands with the leaders of business, art, science and medicine–something the internet can not give me.
College professors do not want students to be excited about school and theory alone–they want them to take their passion into the world beyond the campus. I am not writing this commentary for my school newspaper. Help! I am writing it for New York Times Magazine, a publication Journalism majors like me aspire to writing, work for. College urges me to aspire, to help essays, voice my opinions, and yes, to change. The problem with colleges in supplement, the 21st century is convoluted with many deciding factors, resulting in help college, a more complex position for current college students to experience, unlike any previous generation of college students.
In my opinion, being a college graduate student and one who has been involved in my school, I can honestly say that the writing format, biggest problem with our generation is the sense of nihilism, which is plaguing the our very core of our being. It is important to realize that this comes not only from college campuses, but the society in general; people just don’t care. If they do care and want to be involved, societal pressures, mostly economic, is what keeps them from being invoked with the spirit of the previous generations. There seems to help essays, be no sense of urgency when it comes to our generation. Nihilism will do that to dissertation stakes testing, everyone.
I also find it interesting that the people who do want to be involved do not necessarily know what to get involved with. In the 60s, it seemed to be clear cut what the problem was; racism, sexism, or the war in Vietnam. A contrast between the 60s generation and us now is that people do not what the problems really are. The mentality when speaking to essays, college students; they seem to focus more on trying to get that 80K a year job then the socio-political issues affecting us. It is evident that we value the dollar more so than we value the human struggle. So apathy also plays a role.
It is important to realize that we must do something, otherwise everyone suffers. Sending your child to college is not an option in American society, and it’s hardly a privilege at that. Speech Format! In today’s fierce and fast paced world it is help college essays, a necessity For most parents, thought goes into how they will even fund such a venture within the first few months of the child’s conception. College funds and savings bonds, money from dissertation high stakes, relatives and graduation parties, this all gets stored until an entire portion of that funding goes towards expensive college visits. Not only does the child want to go to college, that child has picked out 10 in which there is an orientation at each for prospective parents. They want to see where their money is going, as well as where their child will sleep, learn, and become the successful adult they were meant to be. What is wrong with college?
As a successful student at a prominent Chicago school, I, for college essays one, have plenty of study in nursing, opinions on the matter. Let’s look at “our war” by first taking a retrospective glance at Vietnam. My father, a student at help college, the time of Vietnam, was a conservative at a very conservative Indiana school. Supplement Essay! He still wore his GDI shirt most days of the week and talked highly of the camaraderie between fellow students. There were protests that were actually allowed on his campus. When the students died in help college, the Kent incident he remembers rallies against the war in their honor. Speech Format! He also remembers reading the names of the dead soldiers with the rest of his class, keeping in somber memory the help college, fight his country was in. Bands of on schizophrenia in nursing, students were scared, there was a draft in effect. Help! Everyone had war on the mind and as those 18 year olds took on their first years of college, they had a lot more to worry about than where the what makes tufts supplement, weekend’s keg party was taking place. They were learning, growing, and forming opinions on the world they were entering by knowing their current events and being passionate about help college essays, them.
Of course, without the internet, their local papers brought them more world events and less Lindsay Lohan. Being passionate about the world takes a certain naivety that forms when someone does not already have the opinions of others so easily accessible. The internet has taken so much of this away from current students. In my experience, you only have to make a choice on which websites to read. Looking at speech format, our war today, many students walk away from it, choosing not even to recognize that it affects their daily world. There are many more cliques, many more places to falter, and many more reasons not to care. Hold a pen in college, front of you and look at it; notice its size and color in essay, particular. Now, slowly move it away until you have your arm fully extended. Notice anything different? Probably not, and that is how it should be. If we remember back to middle school science class, color is partially dependent upon the angle that light hits an college essays object.
But we just moved an object, causing the angle to change from our perspective, and did not notice any change in color. Speech! The pen also moved further away without any apparent change in help, size. I forgot the intricate details that explain why this happens, something to do with a portion of the brain that keeps our perceptions fluid . What I do remember, and will never forget, is how cool this all seemed and how much more there is to the world when you get past the surface. College is essay and disadvantages, a pretty different place today than it was for my parents thirty years ago. Then again, so were the two worlds in which we were raised. Most kids in my generation were not raised in the Sandlot. We did not hang out at the malt shop after school. And we definitely did not attend any sock hops (or if we did, best believe we did not call them that). Essays! Instead, we started out playing on jungle gyms with woodchips and protective rubber flooring underneath. Eventually, we found ourselves being chauffeured to organized baseball practice, in a minivan. By high school, the importance of getting into what tufts, a good college had been seared into us and serious attention had to be allocated toward after-school activities and other kinds of enriching events to make sure that we were “well- rounded”.
Here’s a fun game that anyone my age can play: ask your parents what they got on their SATs. If they can, you win! Basically, it is like hitting the lottery, since your parents have to help college essays, be like one out of a million. High school students in the 60’s did not pay $1,000 for an SAT class and definitely did not go to any Independent College Consultants. As Mr. Perlstein stated, college was seen as a place sort of apart from the rest of the world. Kids went there and were met with new people, ideas, and situations. Back then, as I understand it, college was not seen as a stepping stone or a rung on the ladder.
You did not go with the mindset that it was simply a means to dissertation testing, end, a place to simply collect good grades and help college, then experience the ‘director’s cut redux edition’ of college admissions in the form of graduate school, an writing of internet internship or a job. Why College Matters: A Response to “What’s the Matter With College” I suppose I should begin by saying that I don’t go to help, a real college. I mean, I don’t feel like I go to a real college. I don’t take real classes. What Makes You Happy Tufts Essay! I don’t live on a real campus. I’m a music major and attend the help essays, Peabody Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Peabody is an established music conservatory, one of the case study on schizophrenia, schools of Johns Hopkins University (despite what I say about it not being a “real” school). In his essay, Perlstein is making it seem that today’s college undergraduates and the ideals we pursue are somehow deficient. That we’re missing out. He’s especially concerned that we’re nothing like the students of the 60s and 70s.
He’s right about that, but that is nothing to be ashamed of. We’re students who want (or carry) the iPhone. We are environmental activists. We’re more technologically savvy than Perlstein’s generation. We get our information and communicate in essays, a totally different way. We’re amazing jugglers. On Schizophrenia In Nursing! We’re a new breed. It is interesting to essays, read that the submission, defining issue for the 1966 California gubernatorial race was college. For my sake, and I’m sure for the sake of a lot of essays, my peers, I wish it were still that way.
College sounded romantic and fun. My friends argue that things have changed in the past 40 years, and that there are bigger fish to fry. The war, for example. Making a living once college ends. When they start complaining, however, about classes and stress, I ask them, “aren’t there bigger fish to fry?” at which they sigh outwardly, roll their eyes, and throw their hands up in the air. I understand where their frustration lies.
We still feel young in the scheme of things, and not ready to plan out our lives after college. It feels like we’ve been doing nothing but planning since freshman year of high school. Who has time to worry anyway? Right now, I am worrying if I have enough money to pay the rent this month. Many of my classmates worry how to study on schizophrenia in nursing, pay for the next semester. To be honest, when it came to college, college, most of us never really had a choice. Where I grew up, in makes tufts essay, Greenwich, Connecticut, there was never the option of “college vs. Help College Essays! no college.” The choice was “Ivy League vs. state school,” or something along those lines. The whole getting-ready-for-college experience was important.
As you thumb these pages, reader, loyal subscriber, conscious citizen with an appetite for inquiry and thoughtfulness, or may I say fellow American, you tell yourself that you want to sample a young student’s intellect. Certainly I do believe that my own college experience has been important, even critical, to my life and to my thoughts here and now, but young and case study, impressionable does not necessarily partner with a tame, meaningful sense of college essays, hindsight… My college experience has fostered some growth. But for the nation? Lend me some relevance. Am I to accurately describe my confusion with you over thesis coffee to tell you how this all breaks down–I fit in the puzzle and I’m one of the corners, right? Politics. We don’t have movements, and we don’t have causes. Help Essays! A choice between higher education and higher purpose has been made; show me one text message, fellow student, that you have wanted the whole country to read. Children live at submission, school. Especially if they don’t have much of a home life to live in the afternoon or evening, kids live and learn at school. College isn’t so different, only college first graders aren’t expected to shape up all by themselves when they appear to be wasting time.
Oh, college students aren’t either? Pity. I guess higher education isn’t all that important. Essay Writing School Students! Maybe the college, problems of higher education are just fronds atop a mirage of public schooling. Testing! Talk to Herbert Kohl, Jonathan Kozol, John Taylor Gatto, men who are trying to help, wake this country up, and they’ll show you what’s happening to my younger brothers and sisters. Content in dissertation stakes, the shade, college students loaf, while in more dangerous environs, under the pretext that they are to learn, children sit down in their desks each morning in the arms of a crumbling system. In college, we choose to sleep in, not to participate, excel, regress, etc. If higher education is help, important to the nation, why don’t more people act like it? Better yet, if education is so important to the nation’s future, why is it neglected? Important as it is, I feel proud to remember the words of writing, Thomas Jefferson, who often can remind us of politicians’ and citizens’ true responsibilities: “It is highly interesting to help college, our country, and it is the speech format, duty of its functionaries, to provide that every citizen in it should receive an education proportioned to the condition and pursuits of his life.” He speaks to the politician, tells him to take a good look at his fellow Americans. What sort of education will he provide to match the condition, the quality of life?
If the quality be poor, will he stick to help essays, poor schooling until lifestyles rise to the occasion? Try downtown Anywhere, where elementary schools have been forced to remove social studies and for high school, arts in favor of help, apparently year-round test preparation, for what makes you happy tufts supplement standards in English and mathematics. The “need to know” world and help, the world of standardization are one in essay for high school, the same, and columns of darkened bubbles are in no short supply, though there’s still a need to live. The Problem with College: Why We No Longer See Ourselves As “Part of” a Community. One anomaly of American society is that our universities play only a marginal role in help essays, our culture. What Makes You Happy! In other nations, like France where intellectual life is not centered on their institutions of education, this may come as no surprise, but the help college essays, virtues of American universities are indisputable. Academics wonder why they are allowed to be the nation’s intellectual leaders, but not its leaders, or even advisors, in tufts supplement essay, the political or ethical arenas. Some are resentful of the mainstream society, thinking it apostate, as though they were priests of some outworn creed, but this alienation, which has developed in tandem with the evolution of academia, did not come because the essays, society rejected the university as a social or moral authority, but rather because the university ran out of the energy it took to function in this role. This occurred, at least partially, because those of us in makes essay, college found that the values we shared were not strong enough to unite us.
From the time of Plato, the purpose of the college essays, university has not been to represent the you happy supplement, society or culture in which it exists but to pursue truth. Most academics, who may disagree on what truth is in essence, would agree that it is a noble and worthy objective. And, since truth is their goal, many of them think themselves justified in help, being alienated from mainstream society. This does not mean their views are homogenous; I can testify that, at the University of thesis, Idaho (to name one example), the politics of professors in the College of Business are not shared by the English instructors; but what the two departments have in common is their distance from America’s political center. This is largely because specialists in any field, whether that field is philosophy or political science, tend to help college, feel invalidated if anyone could reach the same conclusions that they do. It is a telling fact that, at least until recent years, there was a higher percentage of study on schizophrenia in nursing, self-described Marxist literary critics than blue-color workers. Nonetheless, this desire for college academic innovation benefits the university in that it makes professors’ research original; it is for this reason that, whenever universities are rated according to prestige, the United States constantly is found to have the greatest number of prestigious institutions. Essay Writing For High! Even so, there is another facet to college, a professor’s job, teaching. On Schizophrenia! This requirement creates a dilemma for essays many professors: their strenuous educations and meticulous research has caused many of them to become opinionated, but, at dissertation testing, the same time, they need to keep their students pacified while educating them in accordance with principles which the help essays, students may not share.
Thus, they (and the students) learn that it is easier to ignore worldview-related issues. In searching for the least common ethical denominator among the group, the instructors and the instructed clandestinely agree that the values which they hold as specific to of internet, their Weltanschauungs do not apply to everyone, and, if they do, the value of placidity applies even more. As Allan Bloom wrote in essays, 1987, “[A]lmost every student entering the university . . . says he believes . Format! . . that truth is relative” (1). While this outlook may work in as far as it prevents conflicts, it is an ineffective communal bond. This is because the values of the classroom are provisional and–most students cannot help but feel–artificial. They haven’t the power to unite the help college, students and submission thesis, faculty in a community, which requires common interests and mores.
In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by college the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the occasion to critique higher education from an essay insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the help college essays, winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)
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LAW STUDENT INTERNSHIPS/EXTERNSHIPS LAW GRADUATE INTERNSHIPS WITH THE NOAA OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERNATIONAL SECTION. We accept and college consider applications on a rolling basis throughout the year for internships and study in nursing externships. The International Section of the NOAA Office of General Counsel provides year-round internship and externship opportunities for law school students and internship opportunities for law school graduates. In the past, interns and externs have engaged in research and writing and attended interagency working group meetings at college the U.S. Departments of the Interior, State, Defense, Homeland Security, Transportation, and Commerce as well as at the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. On Schizophrenia. The International Section strives to essays, ensure that each intern and thesis extern has an opportunity to complete a minimum of one substantial writing assignment. The ideal candidate will have a strong research and help essays writing background as well as a demonstrated interest in writing, or experience with international environmental law, oceans law and the Law of the Sea. Internship/Externship Application Process.
Who may apply? Most applicants are in their second or third year of law school. However, we have had a number of college successful first year law student applicants and we welcome such applications. Thesis. On several occasions, we have accepted applications from college students who want some exposure to a law office before they apply to law school. We have also had successful applications from L.L.M. and foreign law students How can I apply for an internship or externship with your office? Submit cover letter, resume, official or unofficial transcript, references and a writing sample. You may submit more than one writing sample; however one of the writing samples must be no more than five (5) pages in length.
We accept applications on a rolling basis throughout the help essays year. While there are no deadlines, we encourage you to submit your application as far in advance as possible of the time you would like to speech writing, work in the office due to the competitive nature of the process. Help College Essays. Please send all requested materials by email to Rebecca Reece with a copy to the office email account. Is there any additional information I should provide? Your cover letter should indicate prominently the time frame of proposed tenure and explain clearly your interest in NOAA GC International Section, international environmental law, oceans law, and/or the case study on schizophrenia Law of the Sea. How will I know if my application is being considered? All applications are reviewed. Applications that indicate a candidate would be an excellent fit will be contacted for additional information and/or for a telephonic or in-person interview. The office is not always able to respond to every application. Will any interviewing expenses be paid? No funds are available to reimburse applicants for essays, any expenses associated with interviewing.
How do you decide whom to select for in nursing, an internship or externship? The successful candidate will have strong research and essays writing skills as well as a demonstrated interest in international environmental law, oceans law and/or the Law of the Sea. That strong interest may be demonstrated by relevant classwork (law school or college), prior work experience (paid or volunteer), or extracurricular activity (law school environmental law society, environmental law journal, note topic). What You Happy Tufts Essay. While candidates with such demonstrated interest are favored, it is not a prerequisite. Professionalism, maturity and international skills are also important factors we consider.
The number of hours per week the applicant can work may also be a factor. Generally speaking, we favor applicants who can work full time over applicants who can only work part time. We believe that interns or externs benefit most from the regular and in-depth exposure to college, the office’s work that a full-time arrangement provides. For High. Our office also takes into account how the help college essays applicant may benefit from working in our office and whether that experience will assist the what you happy candidate in pursuing his or her career goals. Help College. Finally, we look favorably upon candidates who are veterans or have expressed an interest in public service. How am I notified if I am selected? ? If you are selected for an internship or externship, you will receive an offer by email from the submission Chief of the International Section or one of the attorneys in the Section. Help. If you accept the offer, you must complete several of the following forms, depending on whether you are a law student intern or a law graduate intern: These forms must be filled out online, printed out, and sent to Peter Oppenheimer, Chief, International Section, NOAA Office of General Counsel, 1401 Constitution Ave., N.W., Room 48026, Washington, D.C. 20230 at least thirty (30) calendar days in advance of the proposed start date.
How competitive is the thesis application process? We receive the greatest number of college essays applications for writing format, summer positions. Comparatively fewer applications are received for spring and fall positions What are the duration and weekly work requirements? During the spring and fall semesters, we ask for help, a 20 hour/week commitment for submission, a minimum 10 week period. During the help college summer, we ask for a 40 hour/week commitment for a minimum 10 week period. Exceptions may be made on a case-by-case basis. What is the difference between a law student internship, a law student externship and a law graduate internship ? Although the essay for high terms “internship” and “externship” are often used interchangeably in the context of law students, we use the term internship to describe an unpaid, part-time work opportunity of generally 20 hours/week in which students gain experience in our office while continuing to take classes. Interns may or may not receive credit from college their school. We use the term externship to describe an arrangement in which those students who are receiving academic credit for their unpaid their work and therefore must meet a number of high testing requirements imposed by the ABA and their law school (generally 32-40 hours per week).
We use the phrase “law graduate internship” to describe a law school graduate working with us full-time on a volunteer basis. My law school features a semester-long “externship” program, which allows me to work on help essays a full-time basis for credit. Speech Format. Can the essays NOAA GC International Section accommodate me? Yes. Our office prefers semester-long “externs.” What types of training, mentoring and supervising will I receive?
At the outset, there will be a meeting with the Section Chief to discuss your goals and objectives. With guidance from the Section Chief and/or one of the dissertation high staff attorneys, you will develop a written plan outlining how you anticipate accomplishing those goals and objectives. A staff attorney mentor will be assigned to help essays, you to answer questions and dissertation testing otherwise assist you in pursuing your written plan. The Section Chief or one of the staff attorneys will assign projects to you that balance your interests and the needs of the help essays office. The projects will normally come from our €śParking Lot€ť of assignments €“ a spreadsheet that describes projects, identifies the supervising attorney, and notes the project€™s relative priority (high, medium, low).
The assigning attorney will inform you of the project deadline, format, audience, and speech writing format facts and resources necessary to complete it. He or she also will be available to answer any questions, and will provide written and/or verbal feedback on the work product. At the end of each week, you will be asked to turn in a log that identifies each of the projects assigned to you, their status and your hours worked. Help Essays. The office has an high informal open-door policy that facilitates regular communication between interns and attorneys. Help Essays. Attorneys will strive to provide opportunities to expose you to the interagency process through attendance at meetings, as well as to meetings and briefings with clients. Case Study In Nursing. Attorneys also will identify and encourage interns to attend brown bag lunch panels and seminars available at no-cost at NOAA, the Department of Commerce, and college other federal agencies and local bar associations. Interns are invited to participate in monthly office staff meetings and other office gatherings. If requested, the essay writing school students office will provide a mid-term and end-of-internship evaluation. Interns are also encouraged to help essays, proactively seek feedback from the office€™s attorneys throughout their tenure.
May an intern or extern work remotely? In almost all cases, work is dissertation stakes testing, done at our office in the main Department of Commerce building, 14th St. and Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. Occasionally, an intern or extern may work for part or all of help their tenure in Silver Spring, MD where NOAA is headquartered. School. There will also be instances where an intern or extern will be out of the college essays office researching and writing at the Commerce Department research library or similar institution in what makes tufts supplement essay, the D.C. metro area. May positions be extended beyond the time frame initially agreed?
Possibly, if work and other circumstances warrant an extension. Help Essays. A small number of interns and externs have been accepted for a second student internship or law graduate fellowship. May first year law students apply for a position? Yes. Could an for high students internship, externship, or fellowship lead to a paid position? Hiring of college essays full-time or paid term attorneys by NOAA depends on several factors, including vacancies, qualifications (including admission to a state bar) and the availability of on advantages funds. Essays. Qualified interns and externs may be considered should an attorney-advisor position become available. (All such openings are publicized on www.USAJobs.com). May I receive credit for the position? We will gladly complete all paperwork necessary for your educational institution to grant you credit for successful completion of the internship or externship. Based on and disadvantages of internet the success in the past, a favorable consideration may be given to help college essays, applicants that would obtain class credit, stipend or other support from their educational institution in writing on advantages and disadvantages, furtherance of the development of experience in international marine environmental law. Is a security clearance required?
Yes, before you can receive a badge (which is a prerequisite for all positions and essays required for access to federal government facilities), you must have received a security clearance from the makes Department of Commerce Office of Security. In filling out the required forms described above, you will be required to answer questions, including with respect to any past unlawful activity which is a matter of record or for which you were fined or penalized. Any affirmative answers will have to be explained to the satisfaction of the Department of Commerce Office of Security, and that Office will determine whether you are eligible for the required security clearance. Is U.S. citizenship a requirement for help college essays, a position? Generally speaking, all interns and externs must be U.S. citizens. Writing. However, exceptions may be made in certain circumstances, including when there are no U.S. citizens available to essays, do the work or project. Non-citizens must complete additional paperwork and undergo additional screening before being cleared to assume a position with NOAA. Must applicants be law school students or law school graduates? Although the what makes supplement vast majority of our applicants are law school students or law school graduates, we have offered internships and help externships to exceptionally well-qualified college students and graduate school students.
I am a veteran. How is dissertation high testing, that taken into account? There is no formal rating system for applying veterans’ preference to attorney appointments in the excepted service or, by extension, to a volunteer internship or externship in an attorney office. However, we consider veteran’s preference eligibility as a positive factor in considering applications. Applicants eligible for veterans’ preference must include that information in their cover letter or resume and attach supporting documentation (e.g., the DD 214, Certificate of help essays Release or Discharge from Active Duty or other supporting documentation) to their submissions. Department of dissertation testing Commerce/NOAA Resources. NOAA’s Office of Education web site has additional information on other student opportunities available throughout NOAA.
The Department of Commerce (of which NOAA is a part) has a Legal Internship Recruitment web page. Additional career opportunity resources within the Department of Commerce include the job career and student career opportunities websites. Law Jobs Opportunities Blog (use at your own risk; we do not endorse this blog or vouch for any information contained therein) Consistent with Department of Commerce Administrative Order (DAO) 215-3, the Office of General Counsel upholds the Department’s policy on equal opportunity recruiting and works to generate diverse applicant pools consistent with race, national origin, and gender percentages in the civilian labor force.